A busy Boston architect, Brooke Trivas gets tons of emails. She usually responds to them quickly, replying or deleting as needed. But a recent email, sent by a friend, was so unnerving it required more attention.
Leading brands of lipstick contain lead, the message warned -- at levels high enough to cause cancer. The warning cited as its source a doctor from a hospital breast cancer unit in Toronto. The message included a plea to share the news, and Trivas did, forwarding the email to 10 friends, worried they had not yet heard about this bizarre health hazard.
The main ingredient of 714-X is camphor, which comes from the wood and bark of the camphor tree (see Question 1).
It is claimed that 714-X helps the immune system fight cancer (see Question 3).
No study of 714-X has been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal to show it is safe or effective in treating cancer (see Question 6).
714-X is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States (see Question 8).
Soon, she learned the truth: the email was a hoax.
Health hoaxes, of course, have been around since time immemorial, but thanks to the Internet, disseminating them has never been this quick or easy. In minutes, fearful recipients can forward the warning to their entire address books, sometimes spreading anxiety unnecessarily.
WebMD talked to experts, including those who investigate the health alerts, and asked for the lowdown on 6 popular health alerts. We also asked why it's so hard to ignore them, and got some tips on how to recognize the next hoax before you click "Forward."
1. Lead in Lipstick Causes Cancer?
The email warns readers that one brand -- Red Earth -- recently lowered its price from $67 to $9.90 because "it contained lead. Lead is a chemical that causes cancer," the email says, going on to list seven other brands of lipstick alleged to contain enough lead to be harmful.
The truth? The claim is false. While lead exposure can be dangerous, it's not been linked to cancer. And lead levels in lipsticks are low and not regarded as dangerous by the FDA, which regulates cosmetics, says Rich Buhler, who checked out the lipstick claim for his Internet hoax web site, Truth Or Fiction. His verdict on the lipstick claim: baseless.
2. The Supplement Cold fX "Feeds" Women's Hormonal Cancers?
Soon after this over-the-counter cold and flu remedy hit the U.S. market from Canada in late 2006, the emails began, warning that it could feed hormonal cancers in women.
False, says Barbara Mikkelson, who with her husband David operates the web site Snopes, dedicated to unraveling hoaxes, rumors, and urban legends. She checked in with a variety of sources, including the Canadian manufacturer, who actually had found in a preliminary study that the active ingredient may have anticancer properties.