Head and Neck Cancers (Including Eye Cancer) Directory
Head and neck cancers are cancers that start in mouth, nose, throat, or sinus areas. They do not include brain cancer. Head and neck cancers usually begin in the cells that make up the moist, thin tissue that lines the inside of the mouth, nose, and throat. Head and neck cancers are more common in men. Smoking and chewing tobacco raise your risk for this type of cancer, particularly if you drink alcohol. Follow the links below to find WebMD's comprehensive coverage about how head and neck cancers (including eye cancer) develop, what the symptoms are, how to treat it, and much more.
What Is Throat Cancer?
From first symptoms to recovery, this is what you need to know about throat cancer.
Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]-Stage Information for Salivary Gland Cancer
In general, tumors of the major salivary glands are staged according to size, extraparenchymal extension, lymph node involvement (in parotid tumors, whether or not the facial nerve is involved), and presence of metastases.[1,2,3,4] Tumors arising in the minor salivary glands are staged according to the anatomic site of origin (e.g., oral cavity and sinuses). Clinical stage, particularly tumor size, may be the critical factor to determine the outcome of salivary gland cancer and may be more important than histologic grade.[5,6] Diagnostic imaging studies may be used in staging. With excellent spatial resolution and superior soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers advantages over computed tomographic scanning in the detection and localization of head and neck tumors. Overall, MRI is the preferred modality for evaluation of suspected neoplasms of the salivary glands.Definitions of TNMThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has designated
Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]-General Information About Retinoblastoma
Fortunately, cancer in children and adolescents is rare, although the overall incidence of childhood cancer has been slowly increasing since 1975. Children and adolescents with cancer should be referred to medical centers that have a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists with experience treating the cancers that occur during childhood and adolescence. This multidisciplinary team approach is particularly important in the management of retinoblastoma; it incorporates the skills of the following health care professionals and others to ensure that children receive treatment, supportive care, and rehabilitation that will achieve optimal survival and quality of life: An ophthalmologist with extensive experience in the treatment of children with retinoblastoma.Primary care physician.Pediatric surgical subspecialists.Radiation oncologists.Pediatric medical oncologists/hematologists.Rehabilitation specialists.Pediatric nurse specialists.Social workers.(Refer to the PDQ
Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI]-Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Cancer
Standard therapy for patients with tumors that have spread to distant sites is not curative. Standard treatment options: Fast neutron-beam radiation therapy or accelerated hyperfractionated photon-beam schedules have been reported to be more effective than conventional x-ray therapy in the treatment of patients with inoperable, unresectable, or recurrent malignant salivary gland tumors.[1,2,3,4,5]Treatment options under clinical evaluation:Patients with stage IV salivary gland cancer should be considered candidates for clinical trials. Their cancer may be responsive to aggressive combinations of chemotherapy and radiation. Patients with any metastatic lesions could be considered for clinical trials. Chemotherapy using doxorubicin, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and fluorouracil as single agents or in various combinations is associated with modest response rates.[6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that