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Multiple Myeloma

What Is Multiple Myeloma?

Multiple myeloma is a cancer that affects plasma cells, a kind of white blood cell found in the soft insides of your bones, called marrow. Plasma cells are part of your body's immune system. They make antibodies to help fight off infections.

There is no cure for multiple myeloma, but treatment can often help you feel better and live longer. To make the best possible choices about your treatment and care, you'll want to learn as much as you can about the disease.

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Introduction

Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are found in the NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms. When a linked term is clicked, the definition will appear in a separate window. Many of the genes described in this summary are found in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. When OMIM appears after a gene name or the name of a condition, click on OMIM for a link to more information. There are several hereditary syndromes that involve endocrine or neuroendocrine glands,...

Read the Introduction article > >

With this cancer, your plasma cells multiply and grow out of control. They crowd out healthy cells, including red and white blood cells and those that keep bones strong.

Over time, plasma cells spill out of your bone marrow and travel to other parts of your body, which can damage your organs.

The disease can weaken your immune system, lead to anemia, and cause kidney and bone problems.

You may not notice any symptoms until the cancer is advanced, meaning it has spread inside your body.

Getting this kind of diagnosis is hard for you and the people in your life. It's important that you and your family get support to manage this disease.

Causes

Scientists don't know exactly what causes multiple myeloma. In some people, it may be brought on by changes (mutations) in genes that control how cells grow.

You may be more likely to get this cancer if you are:

Your chances go up if you have other family members with multiple myeloma.

Other conditions can play a role, too. The diseases MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance) and solitary plasmacytoma also affect plasma cells. People with these conditions need to watch for multiple myeloma.

Symptoms

You may not have any symptoms at first. As this cancer develops and plasma cells build up, though, you might have:

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