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    Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - High-Stage Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Treatment

    Children and adolescents with high-stage (stage III or IV) anaplastic large cell lymphoma have a disease-free survival of approximately 60% to 75%.[1,2,3,4,5,6] It is unclear which strategy is best for the treatment of high-stage anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The German Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM) group used six cycles of intensive pulsed therapy, similar to their B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) therapy (GER-GPOH-NHL-BFM-90 [NHL-BFM-90]).[2]; [7][Level of evidence: 1iiA] Building on these results, the European Intergroup for Childhood NHL (EICNHL) group conducted the FRE-IGR-ALCL99 study (based on the GER-GPOH-NHL-BFM-90 regimen). First, this randomized study demonstrated that methotrexate 1 g/m2 infused over 24 hours plus intrathecal methotrexate and methotrexate 3 g/m2 infused over 3 hours without intrathecal methotrexate yielded similar outcomes.[8][Level of evidence: 1iiC] However, methotrexate 3 g/m2 over 3 hours had less toxicity than methotrexate 1 g/m2 over 24 hours.[8]; [7][Level of evidence: 1iiDi] Secondly, FRE-IGR-ALCL99 randomly assigned patients to limited vinblastine versus prolonged (1 year) vinblastine exposure. Patients receiving the vinblastine plus chemotherapy regimen had a better event-free survival (EFS) in the first year after therapy (91%) than those not receiving vinblastine (74%); however, after 2 years of follow-up, the EFS was 73% for both groups.[9][Level of evidence: 1iiDi] Of note, the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) trial (POG-9317) demonstrated no benefit of adding methotrexate and high-dose cytarabine to 52 weeks of the APO (doxorubicin, prednisone, and vincristine) regimen.[3] The Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology group has used a leukemia-like regimen for 24 months in LNH-92, with similar results as other regimens.[4] The CCG-5941 study tested an approach similar to LNH-92, with more intensive induction and consolidation with maintenance for 1 year total duration of therapy, with similar outcome, but significant hematologic toxicity was observed.[5][Level of evidence: 2A]

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in anaplastic large cell lymphoma is rare at diagnosis. In an international study of systemic childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 12 of 463 (2.6%) patients had CNS involvement, three of whom had isolated CNS disease. With multiagent chemotherapy, including high-dose methotrexate, cytarabine, and intrathecal treatment, the event-free survival and overall survival of the CNS-positive group at 5 years were 50% (95% CI, 25%-75%) and 74% (45%-91%), respectively, with a median follow up of 4.1 years. The role of cranial radiation therapy is difficult to assess.[10]

    Recommended Related to Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Understanding Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma -- Symptoms

    Symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include: Painless swelling of one or more lymph nodes, with no recent infection. Swelling may be intermittent. Swelling, fluid accumulation, or pain in the abdomen. Shortness of breath, wheezing, or coughing. Bloody stool or vomit. Swelling of the face, neck, and arms. Blockage of urine flow. Bone pain. Unexplained weight loss amounting to 10% of body weight over six months. Fever lasting for at least 14 consecutive days, usually in...

    Read the Understanding Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma -- Symptoms article > >

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