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Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Polycythemia Vera

Polycythemia vera is a disease in which too many red blood cells are made in the bone marrow.

In polycythemia vera, the blood becomes thickened with too many red blood cells. The number of white blood cells and platelets may also increase. These extra blood cells may collect in the spleen and cause it to swell. The increased number of red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets in the blood can cause bleeding problems and make clots form in blood vessels. This can increase the risk of stroke or heart attack. In patients who are older than 65 years or who have a history of blood clots, the risk of stroke or heart attack is higher. Patients also have an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia or primary myelofibrosis.

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Symptoms of polycythemia vera include headaches and a feeling of fullness below the ribs on the left side.

Polycythemia vera often does not cause early signs or symptoms. It may be found during a routine blood test. Signs and symptoms may occur as the number of blood cells increases. Other conditions may cause the same signs and symptoms. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:

Special blood tests are used to diagnose polycythemia vera.

In addition to a complete blood count, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, and cytogenetic analysis, a serum erythropoietin test is used to diagnose polycythemia vera. In this test, a sample of blood is checked for the level of erythropoietin (a hormone that stimulates new red blood cells to be made).

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: May 28, 2015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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