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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  2. Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cancer

    For more information from the National Cancer Institute about adult acute myeloid leukemia, see the following: Leukemia Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ LeukemiaDrugs Approved for Acute Myeloid LeukemiaBone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell TransplantationTargeted Cancer TherapiesUnderstanding Cancer Series: Targeted Therapies (Advances in Targeted Therapies)For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

  3. Ewing Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Ewing Sarcoma: Localized Tumors

    Standard Treatment OptionsBecause most patients with apparently localized disease at diagnosis have occult metastatic disease, multidrug chemotherapy as well as local disease control with surgery and/or radiation is indicated in the treatment of all patients.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] Current regimens for the treatment of localized Ewing sarcoma achieve event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of approximately 70% at 5 years after diagnosis.[9]Current standard chemotherapy in the United States includes vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide, also known as VAdriaC or VDC, alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (IE).[9] The combination of IE has shown activity in Ewing sarcoma, and a large randomized clinical trial and a nonrandomized trial demonstrated that outcome was improved when IE was alternated with VAdriaC.[2,9,10] Dactinomycin is no longer used in the United States but continues to be used in the Euro-Ewing studies. Increased dose intensity of doxorubicin during

  4. Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Pathologic and Prognostic Systems for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are classified according to features of cellular morphology, etiology, and clinical presentation. The morphological classification of MDS is largely based on the percent of myeloblasts in the bone marrow and blood, the type and degree of myeloid dysplasia, and the presence of ring sideroblasts.[1] The clinical classification of the MDS depends upon whether there is an identifiable etiology and whether the MDS has been treated previously.Pathologic SystemsThe World Health Organization (WHO) classification [2] has supplanted the historic French-American-British (FAB) classification,[1] as shown in Table 1.Table 1. Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Comparison of the FAB and WHO ClassificationsFAB (1982)WHO (2008)AML = acute myeloid leukemia; FAB = French-American-British classification scheme; MDS = myelodysplastic syndromes; WHO = World Health Organization.Myelodysplastic SyndromesRefractory anemia.Refractory anemia. Refractory cytopenia with multilineage

  5. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000712041-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

  6. Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  7. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Disease OverviewNote: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) was classified as a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) under the French-American-British scheme.[1] The World Health Organization classification removed JMML from MDS, placing it in the new category Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MDS/MPN).[1,2,3]JMML (also known as juvenile chronic myelomonocytic leukemia) is a rare hematopoietic malignancy of childhood accounting for 2% of all childhood leukemias.[4] A number of clinical and laboratory features distinguish JMML from adult-type chronic myeloid leukemia, a disease noted only occasionally in children. In children presenting with clinical features suggestive of JMML, a definitive diagnosis requires the following:[5,6,7]Major criteria (all three required) No Philadelphia chromosome or BCR/ABL fusion gene. Peripheral blood monocytosis is greater than 1 × 109 /L.Fewer than 20% blasts (including promonocytes) in the blood and bone marrow.Minor criteria (two or

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  9. Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer in men is treated the same as breast cancer in women. (See the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Treatment for more information.)Initial SurgeryTreatment for men diagnosed with breast cancer is usually modified radical mastectomy. Breast-conserving surgery with lumpectomy may be used for some men.Adjuvant TherapyTherapy given after an operation when cancer cells can no longer be seen is called adjuvant therapy. Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the operation, the patient may be given radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapy after surgery, to try to kill any cancer cells that may be left.Node-negative: For men whose cancer is node-negative (cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes), adjuvant therapy should be considered on the same basis as for a woman with breast cancer because there is no evidence that response to therapy is different for men and women.Node-positive: For men whose cancer is

  10. Adult Brain Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Spinal Cord Tumors

    Treatment of spinal cord tumors may include the following:Surgery to remove the tumor.Radiation therapy.Chemotherapy (systemic and/or intrathecal), if the tumor has spread to the leptomeninges (leptomeningeal carcinomatosis). Radiation therapy may also be given.Supportive care may be given for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.A clinical trial of a new treatment.

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