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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Mind-Body Therapies and Massage

    Aromatherapy and Essential OilsAromatherapy is the use of essential oils from plants (flowers, herbs, or trees) as therapy to improve physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Patients with cancer use aromatherapy mainly as supportive care to improve their quality of life, such as lowering stress and anxiety. Aromatherapy may be combined with other complementary treatments (e.g., massage and acupuncture) as well as with standard treatment. See the PDQ patient summary on Aromatherapy and Essential Oils for more information.Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapy that helps patients change their behavior by changing the way they think and feel about certain things. CBT may be helpful in treating many side effects of cancer and cancer treatment. Thinking and behavioral interventions focus on positive thoughts and images instead of negative thoughts and behaviors. Patients may gain a sense of control and develop coping skills to

  2. Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Constipation

    Etiology of ConstipationCommon factors that contribute to the development of constipation in the general population include the following: Diet.Altered bowel habits.Inadequate fluid intake.Lack of exercise.Constipation can be a presenting symptom of cancer, or it can occur later as a side effect of a growing tumor or treatment of the tumor. For patients with cancer, additional causative factors are the following:[1]The tumor itself.Cancer-related problems.Effects of drug therapy for cancer or for cancer pain.Other concurrent processes such as organ failure, decreased mobility, and depression. Physiologic factors include the following:Inadequate oral intake.Dehydration.Inadequate intake of dietary fiber.Organ failure.Any or all of these factors can occur because of the disease process, aging, debilitation, or treatment. (Refer to the Nausea, Vomiting, Constipation, and Bowel Obstruction in Advanced Cancer section in the PDQ summary on Nausea and Vomiting for more

  3. Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000745658-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Complementary and Alternative Therapies

  4. Turcot Syndrome

    Important It is possible that the main title of the report Turcot Syndrome is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...

  5. Last Days of Life (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000543592-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Last Days of Life

  6. Adult Brain Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Classification of Adult Brain Tumors

    This classification is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.[1] The WHO approach incorporates and interrelates morphology, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and immunologic markers in an attempt to construct a cellular classification that is universally applicable and prognostically valid. Earlier attempts to develop a TNM-based classification were dropped: tumor size (T) is less relevant than tumor histology and location, nodal status (N) does not apply because the brain and spinal cord have no lymphatics, and metastatic spread (M) rarely applies because most patients with CNS neoplasms do not live long enough to develop metastatic disease.[2]The WHO grading of CNS tumors establishes a malignancy scale based on histologic features of the tumor.[3] The histologic

  7. Last Days of Life (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Symptom Management

    Symptoms commonly experienced at the end of life include pain, delirium, dyspnea, and rattle. In a study of 200 patients with cancer, noisy breathing or rattle, pain, and urinary dysfunction were the symptoms experienced most frequently during the last 48 hours of life.[1] In a large study of cancer patients evaluated with the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, average scores for pain, nausea, anxiety, and depression remained relatively stable over the 6 months before death. However, shortness of breath, drowsiness, well-being, lack of appetite, and tiredness increased in severity over time, particularly in the month before death.[2] Other studies confirm that pain, fatigue, cough, delirium, dyspnea, and other symptoms are common in the final days.[3,4,5];[6][Level of evidence: III];[7,8][Level of evidence: II] Less common but equally troubling symptoms that may occur in the final hours include fever and hemorrhage.Pain During the Final Hours of

  8. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma

    The prognosis for any patient with recurring or relapsing disease is poor, regardless of cell type or stage. The question and selection of further treatment depends on many factors, including the extent of the lesion, age and health of the patient, prior treatment, and site of recurrence, as well as individual patient considerations. Surgical resection of metastases diagnosed subsequent to initial management of ocular melanoma in single-center, case series of highly selected patients has been reported. The extent to which the occasional favorable outcomes are the result of strong selection factors is not clear, so this approach cannot be considered standard.[1]Clinical trials are appropriate, and eligible patients should be advised to consider participation in them whenever possible. Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent intraocular melanoma. The list of clinical trials can be

  9. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000435963-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Urethral Cancer Treatment

  10. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Distal Urethral CancerTreatment of abnormal cells in the mucosa (inside lining of the urethra that have not become cancer, may include surgery to remove the tumor (open excision or transurethral resection), electroresection with fulguration, or laser surgery.Treatment of distal urethral cancer is different for men and women.For women, treatment may include the following:Surgery to remove the tumor (transurethral resection), electroresection and fulguration, or laser surgery for tumors that have not spread deeply into tissue.Brachytherapy and/or external-beam radiation therapy for tumors that have not spread deeply into tissue.Surgery to remove the tumor (anterior exenteration) for tumors that have spread deeply into tissue. Sometimes

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