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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

    Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Testicular Cancer Treatment and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. Benefits Based on fair evidence,screening for testicular cancer would not result in an appreciable decrease in mortality,in part because therapy at each stage is so effective. Magnitude of Effect: Fair evidence of no reduction in mortality. Study ...

  2. Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the use of mistletoe extracts in the treatment of people with cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already

  3. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

    DysgerminomasStandard treatment options:Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without lymphangiography or computed tomography (CT).Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by observation.Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy.For patients with stage I dysgerminoma, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy conserving the uterus and opposite ovary is accepted treatment of the younger patient who wants to preserve fertility or a pregnancy. Postoperative lymphangiography or CT is indicated before treatment decisions are made for patients who have not had careful surgical and pathological examination of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes during surgery. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and Reproductive Issues for more information on fertility.)Patients who have been completely staged and have stage IA tumors may be observed carefully after surgery without adjuvant treatment. About 15% to 25% of these patients will relapse, but they can be treated

  4. PC-SPES (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the use of PC-SPES in the treatment of people with cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to

  5. Lymphedema (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Lymphedema

    The goal of treatment is to control the swelling and other problems caused by lymphedema.Damage to the lymph system cannot be repaired. Treatment is given to control the swelling caused by lymphedema and keep other problems from developing or getting worse. Physical (non-drug) therapies are the standard treatment. Treatment may be a combination of several of the physical methods. The goal of these treatments is to help patients continue with activities of daily living, to decrease pain, and to improve the ability to move and use the limb (arm or leg) with lymphedema. Drugs are not usually used for long-term treatment of lymphedema.Treatment of lymphedema may include the following:Pressure garmentsPressure garments are made of fabric that puts a controlled amount of pressure on different parts of the arm or leg to help move fluid and keep it from building up. Some patients may need to have these garments custom-made for a correct fit. Wearing a pressure garment during exercise may help

  6. Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Human / Clinical Studies

    CannabisPharmacology When Cannabis is ingested by mouth, there is a low (6%–20%) and variable oral bioavailability.[1,2] Peak plasma concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) occur after 1 to 6 hours and remain elevated with a terminal half-life of 20 to 30 hours. Taken by mouth, delta-9-THC is initially metabolized in the liver to 11-OH-THC, a potent psychoactive metabolite. When inhaled, cannabinoids are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream with a peak concentration in 2 to 10 minutes, declining rapidly for a period of 30 minutes and with less generation of the psychoactive 11-OH metabolite.Cannabinoids are known to interact with the hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme system.[3,4] In one study, 24 cancer patients were treated with intravenous irinotecan (600 mg, n = 12) or docetaxel (180 mg, n = 12), followed 3 weeks later by the same drugs concomitant with medicinal Cannabis taken in the form of an herbal tea for 15 consecutive days, starting 12 days before

  7. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages IIA and IIB NSCLC Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Stages IIA and IIB NSCLCStandard treatment options for stages IIA NSCLC and IIB NSCLC include the following:Surgery.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Adjuvant chemotherapy.Radiation therapy.Adjuvant radiation therapy has not been show to improve outcomes in patients with stages II NSCLC.SurgerySurgery is the treatment of choice for patients with stage II NSCLC. A lobectomy, pneumonectomy, or segmental resection, wedge resection, or sleeve resection may be performed as appropriate. Careful preoperative assessment of the patient's overall medical condition, especially the patient's pulmonary reserve, is critical in considering the benefits of surgery. Despite the immediate and age-related postoperative mortality rate, a 5% to 8% mortality rate with pneumonectomy or a 3% to 5% mortality rate with lobectomy can be expected. Evidence (surgery):The Cochrane Collaboration group reviewed 11 randomized trials with a total of

  8. Unusual Cancers of Childhood (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Unusual Cancers of the Abdomen

    Cancer of the Adrenal CortexThere are two adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small and shaped like a triangle. One adrenal gland sits on top of each kidney. Each adrenal gland has two parts. The outer layer of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex. The center of the adrenal gland is the adrenal medulla. Cancer of the adrenal cortex is also called adrenocortical carcinoma. Childhood cancer of the adrenal cortex occurs most commonly in patients younger than 6 years or in the teen years, and more often in females.The adrenal cortex makes important hormones that do the following:Balance the water and salt in the body.Help keep blood pressure normal.Help control the body's use of protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Cause the body to have male or female characteristics.Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Diagnostic and Staging TestsThe risk of cancer of the adrenal cortex is increased by having any of the following syndromes:Li-Fraumeni syndrome.Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.Hemihypertrophy. A

  9. Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  10. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    The staging systems are all clinical staging and are based on the best possible estimate of the extent of disease before treatment. The assessment of the primary tumor is based on inspection and palpation, when possible, and by both indirect mirror examination and direct endoscopy. The tumor must be confirmed histologically, and any other pathologic data obtained from a biopsy may be included. Additional radiographic studies may be included. As an adjunct to clinical examination, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging are needed for an accurate staging of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas because both cross-sectional imaging modalities are known to reliably evaluate deep tumor infiltration.[1,2,3] The appropriate nodal drainage areas are examined by careful palpation. If a patient relapses, complete restaging must be done to select the appropriate additional therapy. Definitions of TNMThe American Joint Committee on Cancer has designated staging by TNM

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