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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    No standard regimen exists for the treatment of patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML), particularly in patients with a first remission duration of less than 1 year.[1]A number of agents have activity in recurrent AML.[2,3] A combination of mitoxantrone and cytarabine was successful in 50% to 60% of patients who experienced relapse after initially obtaining a complete remission (CR).[4] Other studies using idarubicin and cytarabine or high-dose etoposide and cyclophosphamide reported similar results.[3,5,6,7] Mitoxantrone, etoposide, and cytarabine (MEC) demonstrated a CR induction rate of 55% in a population including 30 patients with relapsed AML, 28 patients with primary refractory AML, and 16 patients with secondary AML.[8][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] However, in a phase III Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) (E-2995) trial of MEC with or without PSC388, a multidrug resistance modulator, complete response (CR) was only 17% to 25% in a population including

  2. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Who is at Risk?

    For the great majority of people,the major factor that increases a person's risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing age. Risk increases dramatically after age 50 years; 90% of all CRCs are diagnosed after this age. The history of CRC in a first-degree relative,especially if before the age of 55 years,roughly doubles the risk. Other risk factors are weaker than age and family history. ...

  3. Spirituality in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Screening and Assessment of Spiritual Concerns

    Raising spiritual concerns with patients can be accomplished by the following approaches:[1,2]Waiting for the patient to bring up spiritual concerns.Requesting that the patient complete a paper-and-pencil assessment.Having the physician do a spiritual inquiry or assessment by indicating his or her openness to a discussion.These approaches have different potential value and limitations. Patients may express reluctance to bring up spiritual issues, noting that they would prefer to wait for the provider to broach the subject. Standardized assessment tools vary, have generally been designed for research purposes, and need to be reviewed and utilized appropriately by the provider. Physicians, unless trained specifically to address such issues, may feel uncomfortable raising spiritual concerns with patients.[3] However, an increasing number of models are becoming available for physician use and training.[4]Numerous assessment tools are pertinent to performing a religious and

  4. Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Acupuncture

    Acupuncture is a part of traditional Chinese medicine used in China and other Asian countries for thousands of years. In patients with cancer, acupuncture is usually used to relieve symptoms, treat side effects of therapy, and improve quality of life. It may help the immune system work better, control nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, and relieve cancer pain. Acupuncture may treat weight loss, anxiety, depression, insomnia, poor appetite, and gastrointestinal symptoms (constipation and diarrhea). See the PDQ patient summary on Acupuncture for more information.

  5. Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the genetics of endocrine and neuroendocrine neoplasias. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Cancer Genetics Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a

  6. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus

  7. Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  8. Stage Information

    There is no generally applied staging system for childhood brain stem gliomas.[1] It is uncommon for these tumors to have spread outside the brain stem itself at the time of initial diagnosis. Spread of malignant brain stem tumors is usually contiguous; metastasis via the subarachnoid space has been reported in up to 30% of cases diagnosed antemortem.[2] Such dissemination may occur prior to local relapse but usually occurs simultaneously with or after local disease relapse.[3]The less common tumors of the midbrain, especially in the tectal plate region, have been viewed separately from those of the brain stem because they are more likely to be low grade and have a greater likelihood of long-term survival (approximately 80% 5-year progression-free survival vs. <10% for tumors of the pons).[1,4,5,6,7,8] Similarly, dorsally exophytic and cervicomedullary tumors are generally low grade and have a relatively favorable prognosis. Children younger than 3 years may have a more favorable

  9. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Digestive System

    Teeth and jawsProblems with the teeth and jaws are late effects that are more likely to occur after treatment for certain childhood cancers.Treatment for these and other childhood cancers may cause the late effect of problems with teeth and jaws:Head and neck cancers.Hodgkin lymphoma.Leukemia that has spread to the brain and spinal cord.Nasopharyngeal cancer.Neuroblastoma.Radiation to the head and neck and certain chemotherapy drugs increase the risk of late effects to the teeth and jaws.The risk of health problems that affect the teeth and jaws increases after treatment with the following:Radiation therapy to the head and neck.Total-body irradiation (TBI) or chemotherapy with busulfan as part of a stem cell transplant.Chemotherapy with higher doses of alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide.Risk may also be increased in survivors who were younger than 5 years at the time of treatment because their permanent teeth had not fully formed. Late effects that affect the teeth and jaws

  10. Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062846-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Retinoblastoma Treatment

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