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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Etiopathogenesis

    Oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy and radiation result from complex interactions among multiple factors. The most prominent contributors are direct lethal and sublethal damage to oral tissues, attenuation of immune and other protective systems, and interference with normal healing. Principal causes can be attributed to both direct stomatotoxicity and indirect stomatotoxicity. Direct toxicities are initiated via primary injury to oral tissues. Indirect toxicities are caused by nonoral toxicities that secondarily affect the oral cavity, including the following:Myelosuppression.Loss of tissue-based immune cells.Loss of protective salivary constituents.Understanding of mechanisms associated with oral complications continues to increase. Unfortunately, there are no universally effective agents or protocols to prevent toxicity. Elimination of preexisting dental/periapical, periodontal, and mucosal infections; institution of comprehensive oral hygiene protocols

  2. Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Survivorship and Adverse Late Sequelae

    While the issues of long-term complications of cancer and its treatment cross many disease categories, there are several important issues that relate to the treatment of myeloid malignancies that are worth stressing. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for more information.)The Children's Cancer Survivor Study examined 272 survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who did not undergo a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT).[1] This study identified second malignancies (cumulative incidence, 1.7%) and cardiotoxicity (cumulative incidence, 4.7%) as significant long-term risks. Cardiomyopathy has been reported in 4.3% of survivors of AML based on Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster studies. Of these, 2.5% showed clinical symptoms.[2] Retrospective analysis of a single study suggests cardiac risk may be increased in children with Down syndrome,[3] but prospective studies are required to confirm this finding.In a review from one institution, the

  3. Histopathologic Classification of Childhood Ependymal Tumors

    In the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors, ependymal tumors are classified into four main subtypes:[1]Subependymoma (WHO Grade I).Myxopapillary ependymoma (WHO Grade I).Ependymoma (WHO Grade II). Variants include cellular, papillary, tanycytic, clear cell, and mixed.Anaplastic (also known as malignant) ependymoma (WHO Grade III).The subependymoma is a slow-growing benign neoplasm, typically attached to the ventricle wall, and is composed of glial tumor cell clusters embedded in a fibrillary matrix. The myxopapillary ependymoma arises almost exclusively in the location of the conus medullaris, cauda equina, and filum terminale of the spinal cord, and is characterized histologically by tumor cells arranged in a papillary manner around vascularized myxoid stromal cores.The ependymoma, which is considered a Grade II neoplasm originating from the walls of the ventricles or from the spinal canal, is composed of neoplastic ependymal cells.

  4. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Histopathologic, Immunologic, and Cytogenetic Characteristics of LCH

    Cell of Origin and Biologic CorrelatesModern classification of the histiocytic diseases divides them into dendritic cell–related, monocyte/macrophage-related, or true malignancies. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a dendritic cell disease.[1,2] The Langerhans cells (LCH cells) in LCH lesions are immature cells that express the monocyte marker CD14, which is not found on normal skin Langerhans cells (LCs).[3] Comprehensive gene expression array data analysis on LCH cells is consistent with the concept that the skin LC is not the cell of origin for LCH.[4] Rather it is likely to be a myeloid dendritic cell, which expresses the same antigens (CD1a and CD207) as the skin LC. This concept was further supported by a study reporting that the transcription profile of LCH cells was distinct from myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, as well as epidermal LCs.[5]LCH lesions also contain lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, fibroblasts, and sometimes multinucleated

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Significance

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide [1] and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States.[2] It is estimated that there will be 142,820 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2013 and 50,830 deaths due to this disease. From 2005 to 2009, CRC incidence declined by 4.1% per year among adults aged 50 years and older. However, in adults younger than 50 years, CRC incidence rates have been increasing by 1.1% per year. From 2005 to 2009, mortality from CRC declined by 2.4% per year in men and 3.1% per year in women.[2] The incidence is higher in men than in women. It ranges from 46.1 per 100,000 per year in Hispanic men to 66.9 per 100,000 per year in African American men. In women, it ranges from 31.9 per 100,000 per year in Hispanics to 50.3 per 100,000 per year in African Americans.[3] The age-adjusted mortality rates for men and women are 20.2 per 100,000 per year in men and 14.1 per 100,000 per year in women.[3] About 5%

  6. Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

    Stage I disease includes small lesions.Standard treatment options:For maxillary sinus tumors (small lesions of the infrastructure): Surgical resection.Postoperative radiation therapy should be considered for close margins (particularly in tumors of the suprastructure).For ethmoid sinus tumors (lesions are usually extensive when diagnosed):[1,2,3]Generally, external-beam radiation therapy alone is used for unresectable lesions.Well-localized lesions can be resected, but it generally requires resection of the ethmoids, maxilla, and orbit with consideration for a craniofacial approach.If surgery can be done with good functional and cosmetic results, postoperative radiation therapy should be given even with clear surgical margins.For sphenoid sinus tumors:Treatment is the same as for nasopharyngeal cancers, primarily radiation therapy. (Refer to the Stage I Nasopharyngeal Cancer section in the PDQ summary on Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment for more information.)For nasal cavity tumors

  7. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Recurrence of craniopharyngioma occurs in approximately 35% of patients regardless of primary therapy.[1] Management is determined in large part by prior therapy. Repeat attempts at gross total resection are difficult and long-term disease control is less often achieved.[2][Level of evidence: 3iiiDi] Complications are more frequent than with initial surgery.[3][Level of evidence: 3iiiDi] External-beam radiation therapy is an option if this has not been previously employed, including consideration of radiosurgery in selected circumstances.[4][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiii] Cystic recurrences may be treated with intracavitary instillation of radioactive P-32, bleomycin,[5][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiii] or interferon-alpha,[6][Level of evidence: 3iiiB] and a reservoir may be placed to permit intermittent outpatient aspiration. Although systemic therapy is generally not utilized, a small series has shown that the use of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alpha-2b to manage cystic recurrences

  8. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of Adult LCH

    Standard Treatment OptionsThe lack of clinical trials limits the ability to make evidence-based recommendations for adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).Most investigators have previously recommended treatment according to the guidelines given above for standard treatment of children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is unclear, however, whether adult LCH responds as well as the childhood form of the disease. In addition, the drugs used in the treatment of children appear to be less well-tolerated in adults. Excessive neurologic toxicity from vinblastine, for example, prompted closure of the LCH-A1 trial.Treatment of pulmonary LCHIt is difficult to judge the effectiveness of various treatments for pulmonary LCH as patients can recover spontaneously or have stable disease without treatment. Smoking cessation is mandatory in view of the apparent causal effect of smoking in pulmonary LCH.[1] It is not known if steroid therapy is efficacious in the treatment of

  9. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Rectal Cancer

    Recurrent rectal cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the rectum or in other parts of the body, such as the colon, pelvis, liver, or lungs.

  10. Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

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