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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Digestive System

    Teeth and jawsProblems with the teeth and jaws are late effects that are more likely to occur after treatment for certain childhood cancers.Treatment for these and other childhood cancers may cause the late effect of problems with teeth and jaws:Head and neck cancers.Hodgkin lymphoma.Leukemia that has spread to the brain and spinal cord.Nasopharyngeal cancer.Neuroblastoma.Radiation to the head and neck and certain chemotherapy drugs increase the risk of late effects to the teeth and jaws.The risk of health problems that affect the teeth and jaws increases after treatment with the following:Radiation therapy to the head and neck.Total-body irradiation (TBI) or chemotherapy with busulfan as part of a stem cell transplant.Chemotherapy with higher doses of alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide.Risk may also be increased in survivors who were younger than 5 years at the time of treatment because their permanent teeth had not fully formed. Late effects that affect the teeth and jaws

  2. Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062846-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Retinoblastoma Treatment

  3. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Risk Factors

    Scientists study risk factors and protective factors to find ways to prevent new cancers from starting. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer risk factor; anything that decreases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer protective factor.Some risk factors for cancer can be avoided, but many cannot. For example, both smoking and inheriting certain genes are risk factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Risk factors that a person can control are called modifiable risk factors.Many other factors in our environment, diet, and lifestyle may cause or prevent cancer. This summary reviews only the major cancer risk factors and protective factors that can be controlled or changed to reduce the risk of cancer. Risk factors that are not described in the summary include certain sexual behaviors, the use of estrogen, and being exposed to certain substances at work or to certain chemicals.Factors That are Known to Increase

  4. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors

    Newly Diagnosed GerminomasTreatment may include the following:Radiation therapy to the tumor and ventricles (fluid -filled spaces) of the brain. A higher dose of radiation is given to the tumor than the area around the tumor.Chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy.A clinical trial of chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy given in lower doses depending on the patient's response.Newly Diagnosed TeratomasTreatment may include the following:Surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible. Radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy may be given if some of the tumor remains.Newly Diagnosed NongerminomasTreatment of choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, or mixed germ cell tumor may include the following:Chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy.High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue using the patient's own stem cells.A clinical trial of chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy given in lower doses depending on the patient's response.Sometimes the tumor marker

  5. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with childhood astrocytoma.Different types of treatment are available for children with astrocytomas. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Because cancer in children is rare, taking part in a clinical trial should be considered. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Children with astrocytomas should have their treatment planned by a team of health care providers who are experts in treating childhood brain tumors. Treatment will be overseen by a pediatric oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The pediatric

  6. Lymphedema (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  7. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062831-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

  8. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Colon Cancer Genes

    Major GenesMajor genes are defined as those that are necessary and sufficient for disease causation, with important mutations (e.g., nonsense, missense, frameshift) of the gene as causal mechanisms. Major genes are typically considered those that are involved in single-gene disorders, and the diseases caused by major genes are often relatively rare. Most pathogenic mutations in major genes lead to a very high risk of disease, and environmental contributions are often difficult to recognize.[1] Historically, most major colon cancer susceptibility genes have been identified by linkage analysis using high-risk families; thus, these criteria were fulfilled by definition, as a consequence of the study design. The functions of the major colon cancer genes have been reasonably well characterized over the past decade. Three proposed classes of colon cancer genes are tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and DNA repair

  9. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with rectal cancer.Different types of treatment are available for patients with rectal cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Four types of standard treatment are used:SurgerySurgery is the most common treatment for all stages of rectal cancer. The cancer is removed using one of the following types of surgery:Polypectomy: If the cancer is found in a polyp (a small piece of bulging tissue), the polyp is often removed during a

  10. Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062802-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Skin Cancer Prevention

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