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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Colonic Carcinoids

    Colonic carcinoids are often exophytic and large (>5 cm), but they rarely bleed. Only occasional right-sided lesions are positive with 111-Indium octreotide scintigraphy. Many of these tumors are aggressive with a high proliferation rate, and they often present with more liver metastases than regional lymph node metastases.[1] These tumors of the colon are treated similarly to adenocarcinoma of the colon.[2] Attempts to achieve radical resection by hemicolectomy or subtotal colectomy with lymphadenectomy should be made, but frequently only debulking is possible. The overall 5-year survival rate is approximately 40% and is slightly worse than the survival rate for colon adenocarcinoma.[1]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with localized gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor and regional gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug,

  2. Communication in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - The Role of Parents

    Children with cancer need information that is right for their age.Studies show that children with cancer want to know about their illness and how it will be treated. The amount of information a child wants depends in part on his or her age. Most children worry about how their illness and treatment will affect their daily lives and the people around them. Studies also show that children have less doubt and fear when they are given information about their illness, even if it is bad news.There are many ways for parents to communicate with their child.When a child is seriously ill, parents may find that communication is better when they:Talk with the doctor at the beginning of cancer care about open communication with their child and other family members. Parents should discuss how the family feels about sharing medical information with their child, and talk about any concerns they have.Talk with their child and share information throughout the course of the illness.Find out what their

  3. Lymphedema (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000598435-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Lymphedema

  4. Laryngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  5. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Hydatidiform Mole (HM)HM (molar pregnancy) is disease limited to the uterine cavity. Gestational Trophoblastic NeoplasiaDefinitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define gestational trophoblastic neoplasia; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2] Some tumor registrars encourage the recording of staging in both systems.FIGO staging system (and modified World Health Organization [WHO] prognostic scoring system)The FIGO staging system is as follows:[1]Table 1. Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN)a,bFIGO Anatomical StagingFIGO = Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique; hCG = human chorionic gonadotropin; iu = international unit; WHO = World Health Organization.a Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.[1]b To stage and allot a risk factor score, a patient's diagnosis is allocated to a stage as

  6. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  7. Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Current Clinical Trials

    Check NCI's list of cancer clinical trials for U.S. supportive and palliative care trials about constipation, impaction, and bowel obstruction and diarrhea that are now accepting participants. The list of trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria. General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

  8. Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062747-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Nausea and Vomiting

  9. Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors.Different types of treatments are available for patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Three types of standard treatment are used:Radiation therapyRadiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy

  10. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Childhood Ependymoma

    Many of the improvements in survival in childhood cancer have been made as a result of clinical trials that have attempted to improve on the best available, accepted therapy. Clinical trials in pediatrics are designed to compare new therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. This comparison may be done in a randomized study of two treatment arms or by evaluating a single new treatment and comparing the results with those previously obtained with existing therapy. Because of the relative rarity of cancer in children, all patients with aggressive brain tumors should be considered for entry into a clinical trial. To determine and implement optimum treatment, treatment planning by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors is required. Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors is technically very demanding and should be carried out in centers that have experience in that area in order to ensure optimal results.

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