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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP). Different types of treatment are available for patients with CUP. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Four types of standard treatment are used:Surgery Surgery is a common treatment for CUP. A doctor may remove the cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it.Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given chemotherapy or

  2. Breast Cancer Screening - Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of breast cancer screening tests include the following: Finding breast cancer may not improve health or help a woman live longer. Screening may not help you if you have fast-growing breast cancer or if it has already spread to other places in your body. Also, some breast cancers found on a screening mammogram may never cause symptoms or become life-threatening. When such cancers are found, treatment would not help you live longer and may instead cause serious side effects. At this time, it is not possible to be sure which breast cancers found by screening will cause problems and which ones will not.False-negative test results can occur.

  3. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  4. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 25 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  5. Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

    PathogenesisThe pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma remains unclear. Several theories have been proposed to explain the epidemiology of ovarian cancer including the theory of incessant ovulation,[1,2] gonadotropin stimulation,[3] excess androgenic stimulation,[4] and inflammation.[5] Associated risk factors for ovarian cancer support some or all of these hypotheses. Oral contraceptive use is consistently associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer and may operate through preventing the trauma from repeated ovulation by lowering exposure to gonadotropins. No one theory, however, explains all the associated risk factors.Protective Factors Factors associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer include: (1) using oral contraceptives, (2) having and breastfeeding children, (3) having a bilateral tubal ligation or hysterectomy, and (4) having a prophylactic oophorectomy.Oral contraceptives Multiple studies have consistently demonstrated a decrease in

  6. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Assessment

    It is important that cancer patients undergo a careful assessment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) so that early symptoms may be identified and treated. The timing of this assessment will vary with the individual patient. Cancer is an experience of repeated traumas and undetermined length. The patient may experience stress symptoms anytime from diagnosis through completion of treatment and cancer recurrence. In patients who have a history of victimization (such as Holocaust survivors) and who have PTSD or its symptoms from these experiences, symptoms can be started again by certain triggers experienced during their cancer treatment (for example, clinical procedures such as being inside MRI or CT scanners). While these patients may have problems adjusting to cancer and cancer treatment, their PTSD symptoms may vary, depending on other factors. The symptoms may become more or less prevalent during and after the cancer treatment. Symptoms of PTSD usually begin within the first 3

  7. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Notes on Quality Assessment

    Semantics: One can think of the level of a body of evidence as the certainty of the assessment allowed from the evidence. This may also be considered as the quality of the evidence to address a specific question. Because the word quality can have other meanings (e.g., the extent to which individual studies meet given criteria), the Editorial Board prefers the word level.Certainty: Certainty can be considered in several ways, one of which is to use the heuristic of the confidence interval. This confidence interval does not come from a statistical calculation, but is instead a conceptual confidence interval (CCI) representing the Editorial Board's assessment of the range of values for direction and magnitude of the effect of the intervention that is consistent with the overall evidence. This CCI is seeking to answer an effectiveness question (not simply an efficacy question). The question at issue is: What would the health effects be if the intervention were widely implemented in

  8. Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer.Some screening tests are used because they have been shown to be helpful both in finding cancers early and in decreasing the chance of dying from these cancers. Other tests are used because they have been shown to find cancer in some people; however, it has not been proven in clinical trials that use of these tests will decrease the risk of dying from cancer.Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, the chance of recovery is better if the disease is found and treated at an early stage. There is no standard or routine screening test for esophageal cancer.Screening for esophageal cancer is under study with screening clinical trials taking place in many parts of the country. Information about

  9. Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular and Pathologic Classification of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    A variety of neuroendocrine cells normally populate the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa and submucosa. The type, location, and secretory products of GI neuroendocrine cells are well defined and are summarized in Table 1 below. As previously noted, individual carcinoid tumors have specific histologic and immunohistochemical features based on their anatomic location and neuroendocrine cell type. However, all carcinoids share common pathologic features that characterize them as well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).[1]Table 1. Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine CellsaCCK = cholecystokinin; D = somatostatin-producing; EC = enterochromaffin; ECL = enterochromaffin-like; G = Gastrin cell; GIP = gastric inhibitory polypeptide; L = enteroendocrine; M = motilin; N = neurotensin; PP = pancreatic polypeptide; S = secretin.aAdapted from [1,2,3]Cell TypeLocationSecretory ProductG cellGastric antrum and duodenumGastrinECL cellGastric fundus and bodyHistamineD cellStomach, duodenum, jejunum,

  10. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Interventions

    Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ Editorial Boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)Management of pruritus associated with neoplastic disease is directed toward effective management of the underlying malignancy, elimination of actual or potential alterations in skin integrity, and promotion of comfort. Given the subjective nature of itching, the extent to which any therapy is effective may be modified by psychological factors. Multiple approaches and combined efforts may be needed to promote comfort and prevent alterations in the integrity of the skin. TreatmentTreatment of pruritus can be grouped into four categories:[1,2][Level of evidence: IV]Patient education and minimizing or eliminating provocative factors.Application of topical

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