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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Cancer Genetics Overview (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Familial Cancer Susceptibility Syndromes

    Individual PDQ summaries focused on the genetics of specific cancers contain detailed information about many known cancer susceptibility syndromes. Although this is not a complete list, the following cancer susceptibility syndromes are discussed in the PDQ cancer genetics summaries (listed in parentheses following the syndromes):Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome, Gorlin Syndrome, Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome, or Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Genetics of Skin Cancer).Bloom Syndrome (Genetics of Skin Cancer).Breast/Ovarian Cancer, Hereditary (Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer).Colon Cancer, Hereditary Nonpolyposis or Lynch Syndrome (Genetics of Colorectal Cancer).Cowden Syndrome (Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer; Genetics of Colorectal Cancer).Fanconi Anemia (Genetics of Skin Cancer).Hyperparathyroidism, Familial (Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias).Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer).Medullary Thyroid Cancer, Familial (Genetics of Endocrine

  2. Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  3. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062840-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

  4. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. Different types of treatment are available for children with brain and spinal cord tumors. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.Because cancer in children is rare, taking part in a clinical trial should be considered. Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Children with brain or spinal cord tumors should have their treatment planned by a team of health care providers who are experts in treating childhood brain and spinal cord tumors.Treatment

  5. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - General CAM Information

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)—also referred to as integrative medicine—includes a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. A therapy is generally called complementary when it is used in addition to conventional treatments; it is often called alternative when it is used instead of conventional treatment. (Conventional treatments are those that are widely accepted and practiced by the mainstream medical community.) Depending on how they are used, some therapies can be considered either complementary or alternative. Complementary and alternative therapies are used in an effort to prevent illness, reduce stress, prevent or reduce side effects and symptoms, or control or cure disease. Unlike conventional treatments for cancer, complementary and alternative therapies are often not covered by insurance companies. Patients should check with their insurance provider to find out about coverage for complementary and alternative therapies. Cancer patients

  6. Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

    The most common cell type for paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancers is squamous cell carcinoma. Minor salivary gland tumors comprise 10% to 15% of these neoplasms. Malignant melanoma presents in <1% of neoplasms in this region. Some 5% of cases are malignant lymphomas.[1,2]Esthesioneuroepithelioma, sometimes confused with undifferentiated carcinoma or undifferentiated lymphoma, arises from the olfactory nerves.[3]Chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and most soft tissue sarcomas have been reported for this region. Inverting papilloma is considered a low-grade benign tumor with a tendency to recur and, in a small percentage of cases, to transform into a malignant tumor. Midline granuloma, a progressively destructive condition, involves this region as well. References: Mendenhall WM, Werning JW, Pfister DG: Treatment of head and neck cancer. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams

  7. Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062764-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Skin Cancer Prevention

  8. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - What is screening?

    Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms.

  9. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

    Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention, Gastric Cancer Treatment, and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. BenefitsBased on fair evidence, screening would not result in a decrease in mortality from gastric cancer in areas with relatively low incidence of the disease, such as the United States. Magnitude of Effect: Fair evidence for no reduction in mortality.Study Design: Evidence obtained from case-control and cohort studies, primarily from high-risk areas such as Eastern Asia.Internal Validity: Fair.Consistency: Poor in prospective studies.[1]External Validity: Poor. Studies on populations in high-risk areas may not be applicable to low-risk areas such as the United States.HarmsBased on solid evidence, screening would result in uncommon but serious side effects associated with endoscopy, which may include perforation, cardiopulmonary events, aspiration pneumonia, and bleeding requiring

  10. Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit

    Evidence of screening effect derives from descriptive studies of local and national programs in Japan, uncontrolled pilot experiences at a number of sites in Europe and the United States, and population-based studies in Canada and Germany.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]An increase in survival rates among screen-detected cases would be expected if screening was detecting neuroblastoma at an earlier and more curable stage. While improved survival rates after initiation of screening have been reported,[8,9] these observations should be viewed cautiously because improvements could be caused by lead-time bias, length bias, and identification of cases through screening that would have spontaneously regressed. Screening results in an increased incidence of early-stage disease. The cases detected by screening almost exclusively have biologically favorable properties (unamplified N-myc oncogene, near triploidy, and favorable histology), and this type of favorable neuroblastoma has a high

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