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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - High-Penetrance Breast and / or Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes

    BRCA1andBRCA2IntroductionEpidemiologic studies have clearly established the role of family history as an important risk factor for both breast and ovarian cancer. After gender and age, a positive family history is the strongest known predictive risk factor for breast cancer. However, it has long been recognized that in some families, there is hereditary breast cancer, which is characterized by an early age of onset, bilaterality, and the presence of breast cancer in multiple generations in an apparent autosomal dominant pattern of transmission (through either the maternal or paternal lineage), sometimes including tumors of other

  2. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Indolent NHL

    Indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) includes the following subtypes:Follicular lymphoma.Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenström macroglobulinemia).Marginal zone lymphoma.Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma.Follicular LymphomaFollicular lymphoma comprises 20% of all NHLs and as many as 70% of the indolent lymphomas reported in American and European clinical trials.[1,2,3] Most patients with follicular lymphoma are age 50 years and older and present with widespread disease at diagnosis. Nodal involvement is most common and is often accompanied by splenic and bone marrow disease. Rearrangement of the bcl-2 gene is present in more than 90% of patients with follicular lymphoma; overexpression of the bcl-2 protein is associated with the inability to eradicate the lymphoma by inhibiting apoptosis.[4]PrognosisDespite the advanced stage, the median survival ranges from 8 to 15 years, leading to the

  3. Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of skin cancer screening tests include the following: Finding skin cancer does not always improve health or help you live longer. Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have advanced skin cancer.Some cancers never cause symptoms or become life-threatening, but if found by a screening test, the cancer may be treated. Treatments for cancer may have serious side effects.False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal even though cancer is present. A person who receives a false-negative test result (one that shows there is no cancer when there really is) may delay getting medical

  4. General Information About Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis, accounting for only 7% of all kidney tumors, and transitional cell cancer of the ureter, accounting for only 1 of every 25 upper tract tumors, are curable in more than 90% of patients if they are superficial and confined to the renal pelvis or ureter. Patients with deeply invasive tumors that are still confined to the renal pelvis or ureter have a 10% to 15% likelihood of cure. Patients with tumors with penetration through the urothelial wall or with distant metastases usually cannot be cured with currently available forms of treatment. The major prognostic factor at the time of diagnosis of upper tract transitional cell cancer is the depth of infiltration into or through the uroepithelial wall. However, even if ureteroscopy and pyeloscopy are successfully implemented, accurate assessment of depth of invasion is difficult. Therefore, total excision of the ureter with a bladder cuff, renal pelvis, and kidney is recommended in an attempt

  5. Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of Wilms Tumor

    Standard Treatment OptionsTable 2 describes the standard chemotherapy regimens used to treat Wilms tumor.Table 2. Standard Chemotherapy Regimens for Wilms TumorRegimen NameRegimen DescriptionRegimen EE-4A[1]Vincristine, dactinomycin x 18 weeks postnephrectomyRegimen DD-4A[1]Vincristine, dactinomycin, doxorubicin x 24 weeks postnephrectomyRegimen I[2]Vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide x 24 weeksTable 3 provides an overview of the standard treatment based on published results for all stages of Wilms tumor and survival information. Table 3. Overview of Wilms Tumor Standard Treatment by StageStageHistology4 Year RFS or EFS4 Year OSTreatment (seeTable 2for chemotherapy regimen descriptions)AH = anaplastic histology; DA = diffuse anaplastic; EFS = event-free survival; FA = focal anaplastic; FH = favorable histology; OS = overall survival; RFS = relapse-free survival; XRT = radiation therapya Abdominal XRT is planned according to local stage of renal tumor.b

  6. Stage IIB Cervical Cancer

    The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[1] Survival and local control are better with unilateral rather than bilateral parametrial involvement.[2] Patients who are surgically staged as part of a clinical trial and are found to have small volume para-aortic nodal disease and controllable pelvic disease may be cured with pelvic and para-aortic radiation therapy.[3] If postoperative external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is planned following surgery, extraperitoneal lymph node sampling is associated with fewer radiation-induced complications than a transperitoneal approach.[4] The resection of macroscopically involved pelvic nodes may improve rates of local control with postoperative radiation therapy.[5] Treatment of patients with unresected periaortic nodes with extended-field radiation therapy leads to long-term disease control in those patients with low volume (<2 cm) nodal disease below L3.[6]

  7. Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Malignant Mesothelioma

    For more information from the National Cancer Institute about malignant mesothelioma, see the following:Malignant Mesothelioma Home PageDrugs Approved for Malignant MesotheliomaAsbestos Exposure and Cancer RiskFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

  8. Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Indolent, Stage I and Contiguous Stage II Adult Non-Hodgkin LymphomaTreatment of indolent, stage I and contiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include the following:Radiation therapy directed at the area where cancer is found.Watchful waiting.Chemotherapy with radiation therapy.Radiation therapy directed at the area where cancer is found and nearby lymph nodes.Monoclonal antibody therapy with or without chemotherapy.Treatments used for more advanced disease, in patients who can't be treated with radiation therapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with indolent, stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma and indolent, contiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  9. Vaginal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Vaginal Cancer

    Recurrence carries a grave prognosis. In a large series, only five of fifty patients with recurrence were salvaged by surgery or radiation therapy. All five of these salvaged patients originally presented with stage I or II disease and had tumor recurrence in the central pelvis.[1] Most recurrences occur in the first 2 years after treatment. In centrally recurrent vaginal cancers, some patients may be candidates for pelvic exenteration or radiation therapy. No established anticancer drugs can be considered of proven clinical benefit, although patients are often treated with regimens used to treat cervical cancer. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Cervical Cancer Treatment for more information.) If eligible, patients should be offered the option of participation in one of the ongoing clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now

  10. AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - AIDS-Related Peripheral / Systemic Lymphoma

    The treatment of AIDS-related lymphomas involves overcoming several problems. These are all aggressive lymphomas, which by definition are diffuse large cell/immunoblastic lymphoma or small noncleaved cell lymphoma. These lymphomas frequently involve the bone marrow and central nervous system (CNS) and, therefore, are usually in an advanced stage. In addition, the immunodeficiency of AIDS and the leukopenia that is commonly seen with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection makes the use of immunosuppressive chemotherapy difficult. A large number of retrospective studies and several prospective studies have been reported using regimens such as cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP), methotrexate, bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dexamethasone (m-BACOD), and infusional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide.[1,2,3,4] The patients who go into remission are more likely to have less disease, no bone marrow or CNS

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