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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

    This complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information summary provides an overview of the use of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as a treatment for cancer. The summary includes a brief history of NDV research,a review of laboratory and animal studies,the results of clinical trials,and possible side effects of NDV-based therapy. Several different strains of NDV will be discussed in the ...

  2. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Small Intestine Cancer

    The treatment sections of this summary are organized according to histopathologic type rather than stage. Definitions of TNMThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has designated staging by TNM classification to define small intestine cancer.[1]Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)aa Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Small intestine. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 127-32.b The nonperitonealized perimuscular tissue is, for jejunum and ileum, part of the mesentery and, for duodenum in areas where serosa is lacking, part of the interface with the pancreas.TXPrimary tumor cannot be assessed.T0No evidence of primary tumor.TisCarcinomain situ.T1aTumor invades lamina propria.T1bTumor invades submucosa.bT2Tumor invades muscularis propria.T3Tumor invades through the muscularis propria into the subserosa or into the nonperitonealized perimuscular tissue (mesentery or retroperitoneum) with extension ≤2

  3. Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment for Adult ALL in Remission

    Standard Treatment Options for Adult ALL in RemissionStandard treatment options for adult ALL in remission include the following:Postremission therapy, including the following: Chemotherapy.Ongoing treatment with a Bcr-abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor such as imatinib, nilotinib, or dasatinib.Autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT).Central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis therapy, including the following:Cranial radiation therapy plus intrathecal (IT) methotrexate.High-dose systemic methotrexate and IT methotrexate without cranial radiation therapy.IT chemotherapy alone.Postremission therapyCurrent approaches to postremission therapy for adult ALL include short-term, relatively intensive chemotherapy followed by any of the following:Longer-term therapy at lower doses (maintenance therapy).Allogeneic bone marrow transplant.Because the optimal postremission therapy for patients with ALL is still unclear, participation in clinical trials should be considered. (Refer to the

  4. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

    Intraocular melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the eye.Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the white of the eye) and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain.The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract, and has three main parts:IrisThe iris is the colored area at the front of the eye (the eye color). It can be seen through the clear cornea. The pupil is in the center of the iris and it changes size to let more or less light into the eye. Intraocular melanoma of the iris is usually a small tumor that grows slowly and rarely spreads to other parts of the body.Ciliary bodyThe ciliary body is a ring of tissue with muscle fibers that change the size of the pupil and the shape of the

  5. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - What is prevention?

    Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer.

  6. PC-SPES (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of the Evidence for PC-SPES

    To assist readers in evaluating the results of human studies of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments for cancer, the strength of the evidence (i.e., the levels of evidence) associated with each type of treatment is provided whenever possible. To qualify for a level of evidence analysis, a study must:Be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.Report on therapeutic outcome or outcomes, such as tumor response, improvement in survival, or measured improvement in quality of life.Describe clinical findings in sufficient detail that a meaningful evaluation can be made.The lack of consistent composition of PC-SPES due to varying concentrations of adulterants makes it difficult to determine the effects of PC-SPES in humans; therefore, no level of evidence analysis is possible for this treatment. At this time, the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for cancer cannot be recommended outside the context of well-designed clinical trials. For additional information about levels

  7. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

    This cancer treatment information summary provides an overview of the prognosis,diagnosis,classification,and treatment of childhood soft tissue sarcoma. The National Cancer Institute provides the PDQ pediatric cancer treatment information summaries as a public service to increase the availability of evidence-based cancer information to health professionals,patients,and the public. These ...

  8. Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  9. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Overt failure is defined as a loss of hematologic remission or progression to accelerated-phase or blast-crisis phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) as previously defined. A consistently rising quantitative reverse–transcription polymerase chain reaction BCR/ABL level suggests relapsing disease. For initial use of imatinib mesylate, the designation of relative failure or suboptimal response has been proposed for lack of complete hematologic remission by 3 months, no cytogenetic response by 6 months, or no major cytogenetic response by 12 months.[1,2] Nilotinib and dasatinib induce such high rates of complete cytogenetic responses and major molecular responses within several months that new benchmarks are required for responsiveness.[3] These investigators propose that a complete cytogenetic response by 3 months should define an optimal response.[3,4]In case of treatment failure or suboptimal response, patients should undergo BCR/ABL kinase domain mutation analysis to help

  10. Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000257989-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment

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