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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Testicular Cancer

    Note: This Stage Information section has been updated to include information from the 7th edition (2010) of the American Joint Committee on Cancer's AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. The PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is responsible for maintaining this summary, is currently reviewing the new staging categories to determine whether additional changes need to be made to other parts of the summary. Any necessary changes will be made as soon as possible. Definitions of TNMThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has designated staging by TNM classification to define testicular cancer.[1]Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a,b,ca Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Testis. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 469-78.b The extent of primary tumor is usually classified after radical orchiectomy, and for this reason, apathologic stage is assigned.c Except for pTis and pT4, extent of

  2. Grief, Bereavement, and Coping With Loss (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Factors that Affect Complicated Grief

    Researchers study grief reactions to try to find out what might increase the chance that complicated grief will occur.Studies have looked at how the following factors affect the grief response:Whether the death is expected or unexpected. It may seem that any sudden, unexpected loss might lead to more difficult grief. However, studies have found that bereaved people with high self-esteem and/or a feeling that they have control over life are likely to have a normal grief reaction even after an unexpected loss. Bereaved people with low self-esteem and/or a sense that life cannot be controlled are more likely to have complicated grief after an unexpected loss. This includes more depression and physical problems. The personality of the bereaved.Studies have found that people with certain personality traits are more likely to have long-lasting depression after a loss. These include people who are very dependent on the loved one (such as a spouse), and people who deal with distress by

  3. Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Nutrition and Cancer Care

    National Cancer InstituteFor information from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) about nutrition and cancer treatment, see Coping with Cancer: Managing Physical Effects.For information from NCI about nutrition and cancer prevention, see the following PDQ summaries:Cancer Prevention OverviewBreast Cancer PreventionColorectal Cancer PreventionEsophageal Cancer PreventionLung Cancer PreventionStomach (Gastric) Cancer PreventionOrganizationsFor general nutrition information and other resources, see the following:United States Department of Agriculturewww.choosemyplate.govDietary Guidelines for 2010American Botanical Council 800-373-7105 abc.herbalgram.orgAmerican Cancer Society 800-227-2345 www.cancer.orgAmerican Dietetic Association 800-877-1600 www.eatright.orgAmerican Institute for Cancer Research 800-843-8114www.aicr.orgAmerican Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 800-727-4567www.nutritioncare.orgNational Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) 888-644-6226

  4. Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    The two-drug regimen of daunorubicin given in conjunction with cytarabine will result in a complete response rate of approximately 65%. Some physicians opt to add a third drug, thioguanine, to this regimen, although little evidence is available to conclude that this three-drug regimen is better therapy. One study suggested that the addition of etoposide during induction therapy may improve response duration.[1] The choice of anthracycline and the dose-intensity of anthracycline may influence the survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Idarubicin appeared to be more effective than daunorubicin, particularly in younger adults, although the doses of idarubicin and daunorubicin may not have been equivalent.[2,3,4,5] No significant survival difference between daunorubicin and mitoxantrone has been reported.[6] In patients aged 60 years and younger, outcomes for those receiving daunorubicin (90 mg/m2 /dose, total induction dosing at 270 mg/m2) were superior to

  5. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Urethral Cancer

    Prognosis and treatment decisions are both determined by:[1]The anatomical location of the primary tumor.The size of the tumor.The stage of the cancer.The depth of invasion of the tumor.The histology of the primary tumor is of less importance in estimating response to therapy and survival.[2] Endoscopic examination, urethrography, and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in determining the local extent of the tumor.[3,4]Distal Urethral CancerThese lesions are often superficial. Female: Lesions of the distal third of the urethra.Male: Anterior, or penile, portion of the urethra, including the meatus and pendulous urethra.Proximal Urethral CancerThese lesions are often deeply invasive. Female: Lesions not clearly limited to the distal third of the urethra.Male: Bulbomembranous and prostatic urethra.Urethral Cancer Associated with Invasive Bladder CancerApproximately 5% to 10% of men with cystectomy for bladder cancer may have or may develop urethral cancer distal to the urogenital

  6. Treatment Options by Stage

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Carcinoma in Situ (Stage 0)Treatment of carcinoma in situ (stage 0) may include the following:Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP).Laser surgery.Conization.Cryosurgery.Total hysterectomy for women who cannot or no longer want to have children.Internal radiation therapy for women who cannot have surgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 cervical cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Stage IA Cervical CancerTreatment of stage IA cervical cancer

  7. Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000257990-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment

  8. Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Risk Factors and Etiologies

    Not all cancer patients will experience nausea, vomiting (emesis), or both. The most common causes are emetogenic chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or brain. Several patient characteristics have also been identified. These include incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting (N&V) during past courses of chemotherapy, history of chronic alcohol use, age, and gender. Patients with poor control of N&V during prior chemotherapy cycles are likely to experience N&V in subsequent cycles. N&V is less likely in patients with a history of chronic high intake of alcohol [1] and more likely in women [2,3] and in patients younger than 50 years.[2]Other possible causes include fluid and electrolyte imbalances such as hypercalcemia, volume depletion, or water intoxication; tumor invasion or growth in the GI tract, liver, or central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa; constipation; certain drugs such as opioids; infection or septicemia;

  9. Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062853-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Prostate Cancer Prevention

  10. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Stage 0 (Papillary Carcinoma and Carcinoma in Situ)Treatment of stage 0 may include the following:Transurethral resection with fulguration.Transurethral resection with fulguration followed by intravesical biologic therapy or chemotherapy.Segmental cystectomy.Radical cystectomy.A clinical trial of photodynamic therapy.A clinical trial of biologic therapy.A clinical trial of chemoprevention therapy given after treatment so the condition will not recur (come back).Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 bladder cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of

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