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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062831-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

  2. Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

    Once childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.The extent or spread of cancer is usually described as stages. In childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the subtype of AML and whether the leukemia has spread outside the blood and bone marrow are used, instead of the stage, to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used to determine if the leukemia has spread:Lumbar puncture: A procedure used to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the spinal column. This is done by placing a needle into the spinal column. This procedure is also called an LP or spinal tap.Biopsy of the testicles, ovaries, or skin: The removal of cells or tissues from the testicles, ovaries, or skin so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. This is done only if something unusual about the testicles, ovaries, or skin is found during the physical exam. There is no standard

  3. Last Days of Life (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Grief and Bereavement

    Family members are likely to experience loss at the death of their loved one. If left unattended, loss, grief, and bereavement can become complicated, leading to prolonged and significant distress for either family members or clinicians. Furthermore, clinicians are at risk for significant grief from the cumulative effects of many losses through the deaths of their patients. Burnout has also been associated with unresolved grief in health care professionals. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Grief, Bereavement, and Coping With Loss for more information.)

  4. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Diagnosis and Symptoms

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined as the development of certain symptoms following a mentally stressful event that involved actual death or the threat of death, serious injury, or a threat to oneself or others. For the person who has experienced a diagnosis of cancer, the specific trauma that triggers PTSD is unclear. It may be the actual diagnosis of a life-threatening illness, aspects of the treatment process, test results, information given about recurrence, or some other aspect of the cancer experience. Learning that one's child has cancer is traumatic for many parents. Because the cancer experience involves so many upsetting events, it is much more difficult to single out one event as a cause of stress than it is for other traumas, such as natural disasters or rape. The traumatic event may cause responses of extreme fear, helplessness, or horror and may trigger PTSD symptoms. PTSD in cancer survivors may be expressed in these specific behaviors:Reliving the cancer

  5. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 21 / 2014)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.

  6. Penile Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage II Penile Cancer

    Stage II penile cancer is defined by the following TNM classifications:T1b, N0, M0T2, N0, M0T3, N0, M0Standard treatment options: Stage II penile cancer is most frequently managed by penile amputation for local control. Whether the amputation is partial, total, or radical will depend on the extent and location of the neoplasm. External-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy with surgical salvage are alternative approaches.[2,3,4,5,6]Treatment options under clinical evaluation: Nd:YAG laser therapy has been used to preserve the penis in selected patients with small lesions.[7]Because of the high incidence of microscopic node metastases, elective adjunctive dissection of clinically uninvolved (negative) lymph nodes in conjunction with amputation is often used for patients with poorly differentiated tumors. Lymphadenectomy, can carry substantial morbidity, such as infection, skin necrosis, wound breakdown, chronic edema, and even a low, but finite, mortality rate. The impact of

  7. Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage 0 Gastric Cancer

    Standard treatment options:Surgery.Stage 0 is gastric cancer confined to mucosa. Experience in Japan, where stage 0 is diagnosed frequently, indicates that more than 90% of patients treated by gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy will survive beyond 5 years. An American series has confirmed these results.[1]Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 gastric cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.References: Green PH, O'Toole KM, Slonim D, et al.: Increasing incidence and excellent survival of patients with early gastric cancer: experience in a United States medical center. Am J Med 85 (5): 658-61, 1988.

  8. Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Classic Kaposi SarcomaTreatment for single lesions may include the following:Radiation therapy.Surgery.Treatment for lesions all over the body may include the following:Radiation therapy.Chemotherapy.Treatment for Kaposi sarcoma that affects lymph nodes or the gastrointestinal tract usually includes chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with classic Kaposi sarcoma. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Immunosuppressive Therapy–related Kaposi SarcomaTreatment for immunosuppressive therapy–related Kaposi sarcoma may include the following:Stopping or reducing immunosuppressive drug therapy.Radiation therapy.Chemotherapy using one or more anticancer drugs.Check for U.S.

  9. Last Days of Life (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000577190-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Last Days of Life

  10. Delirium (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Etiology of Delirium

    Delirium is often multifactorial, especially in the setting of advanced cancer. General etiologic factors include the following:[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]Indirect central nervous system effects related to systemic complications of cancer such as organ failure (e.g., hepatic or renal failure), metabolic or electrolyte disturbance (e.g., hypoglycemia, hypercalcemia, hyponatremia, or dehydration), infection, and paraneoplastic syndromes (e.g., bulbar encephalitis).[11]Exogenous substances such as the wide variety of medications and treatments used in these patients, including most of the commonly used chemotherapeutic agents,[12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19] bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, biological response modifiers (e.g., interleukin and interferon), glucocorticoids, and especially psychoactive agents such as opioid analgesics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antihistamines, and other sedating agents.Withdrawal phenomena associated with substances such as alcohol and

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