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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000579645-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Pituitary Tumors Treatment

  2. Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (07 / 25 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Description of the EvidenceAdded text to state that the current evidence indicates that sunscreen application as practiced in the general population shows no clear association with reduced risk of melanocytic nevi or melanoma.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  3. Transitional Care Planning (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Comprehensive Biopsychosocial Assessment

    Successful discharge planning and planning for transitions begin with an adequate biopsychosocial assessment of the patient and family.[1] This assessment should recognize patients who need help as well as those who are not getting enough help.[2,3] The following areas require assessment: Physiological:Type of cancer.[4]Functional status.Symptom profile.Disease stage.Disease status (new diagnosis, recurrent, progressive, or remission).Smoking status. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Smoking in Cancer Care for more information.)Nutrition status. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Nutrition in Cancer Care for more information.)Metastasis.Impact of current treatment.Treatment options for the future.Impairment, disability, and/or handicap; or functional independence.Demographics of patient and caregiver:Age, marital status, parental status, and education/occupation.[4]Sex.[5]Length of hospital stay.[6]Primary language.Cultural background; relevant beliefs and practices.Physical barriers to

  4. Gallbladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  5. Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)Treatment of stage 0 is usually surgery (total or subtotal gastrectomy).Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 gastric cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Stage I Gastric CancerTreatment of stage I gastric cancer may include the following:Surgery (total or subtotal gastrectomy).Surgery (total or subtotal gastrectomy) followed by chemoradiation therapy.A clinical trial of chemoradiation therapy given before surgery.Check for U.S.

  6. Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  7. Stage IIA Cervical Cancer

    Either radiation therapy or radical hysterectomy results in cure rates of 75% to 80%. The selection of either option depends on patient factors and local expertise. A randomized trial reported identical 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival rates when radiation therapy was compared with radical hysterectomy.[1] The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[2] For patients with bulky (>6 cm) endocervical squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, treatment with high-dose radiation therapy will achieve local control and survival rates comparable to treatment with radiation therapy plus hysterectomy. Surgery after radiation therapy may be indicated for some patients with tumors confined to the cervix that respond incompletely to radiation therapy or in whom vaginal anatomy precludes optimal brachytherapy.[3] After surgical staging, patients found to have small volume para-aortic nodal

  8. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the screening of bladder and other urothelial cancers. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made

  9. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Histopathologic Classification of Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign and do not metastasize to remote brain locations or to areas outside the sellar region except by direct extension. They may be invasive, however, and may recur locally. They may be classified as adamantinomatous or squamous papillary, with the former being the predominant form in children.[1] They are typically composed of both a solid portion with an abundance of calcification, and a cystic component which is filled with a dark, oily fluid. Recent evidence suggests that adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas are locally more aggressive with a significantly higher rate of recurrence compared with the squamous papillary subtype.[2]References: Karavitaki N, Wass JA: Craniopharyngiomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 37 (1): 173-93, ix-x, 2008. Pekmezci M, Louie J, Gupta N, et al.: Clinicopathological characteristics of adamantinomatous and papillary craniopharyngiomas: University of California, San Francisco experience 1985-2005. Neurosurgery 67

  10. Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - High-Penetrance Breast and / or Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes

    BRCA1andBRCA2IntroductionEpidemiologic studies have clearly established the role of family history as an important risk factor for both breast and ovarian cancer. After gender and age, a positive family history is the strongest known predictive risk factor for breast cancer. However, it has long been recognized that in some families, there is hereditary breast cancer, which is characterized by an early age of onset, bilaterality, and the presence of breast cancer in multiple generations in an apparent autosomal dominant pattern of transmission (through either the maternal or paternal lineage), sometimes including tumors of other

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