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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I and II Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma include patients with local disease only.Standard treatment options:Margin-negative local excision, attempting to maintain function.Surgical nodal evaluation, typically by sentinel node procedure initially, may be considered for patients thought to have significant risk of nodal disease. Completion of the nodal dissection may be considered if positive nodes are found, which would upstage the patient to stage III.Local radiation may be considered if there is concern about the adequacy of the primary tumor excision margin. Regional radiation may be considered if the nodal staging procedure is incomplete or omitted. For sites where the location of primary regional nodes may be uncertain (e.g., mid-back), regional-node field selection would be problematic.Treatment options under clinical evaluation:Enrollment in clinical trials is encouraged.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now

  2. Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of thymoma and thymic carcinoma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus

  3. Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    The term, cholangiocarcinoma, is sometimes used to refer to any primary cancer of the biliary system; however, its use is often restricted to intrahepatic tumors and, therefore, it is not included in this summary. Adenocarcinomas are the most common type of extrahepatic bile duct cancers. The histologic types are listed below:[1,2]Carcinoma in situ. Adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS).Adenocarcinoma, intestinal type.Mucinous adenocarcinoma.Clear cell adenocarcinoma.Signet-ring cell carcinoma.Adenosquamous carcinoma.Squamous cell carcinoma.Small cell (oat cell) carcinoma.Undifferentiated carcinoma. Spindle and giant cell types.Small cell types.Papillomatosis.Papillary carcinoma, noninvasive.Papillary carcinoma, invasive.Carcinoma, NOS.Malignant mesenchymal tumors, although rare, include the following: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.Leiomyosarcoma.Malignant fibrous histiocytoma.References: Perihilar bile ducts. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging

  4. Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000258011-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer Treatment

  5. Antineoplastons (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About CAM

    National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) facilitates research and evaluation of complementary and alternative practices, and provides information about a variety of approaches to health professionals and the public.NCCAM ClearinghousePost Office Box 7923 Gaithersburg, MD 20898–7923Telephone: 1–888–644–6226 (toll free) 301–519–3153 (for International callers)TTY (for deaf and hard of hearing callers): 1–866–464–3615Fax: 1–866–464–3616E-mail: info@nccam.nih.gov Web site: http://nccam.nih.govCAM on PubMedNCCAM and the NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM) jointly developed CAM on PubMed, a free and easy-to-use search tool for finding CAM-related journal citations. As a subset of the NLM's PubMed bibliographic database, CAM on PubMed features more than 230,000 references and abstracts for CAM-related articles from

  6. Gallbladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Gallbladder Cancer

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Localized Gallbladder CancerTreatment of localized gallbladder cancer may include the following:Surgery to remove the gallbladder and some of the tissue around it. Part of the liver and nearby lymph nodes may also be removed. Radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy may follow surgery.Radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy.A clinical trial of radiation therapy with radiosensitizers.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with localized gallbladder cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is

  7. Family Caregivers in Cancer: Roles and Challenges (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  8. Transitional Care Planning (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Definition(s)

    Transitional care can be defined as care that is required to facilitate a shift from one disease stage and/or place of care to another. For example, as a disease progresses, a patient may proceed through phases of illness that require vastly different levels of emphasis in the goals of care and, consequently, in the nature of care delivery. An individual may have a disease that is amenable to curative therapy; the major goal of therapy may focus on this. Alternatively, another stage of cancer may be more amenable to an intense focus on palliation. In many cases, a balance between curative therapy and palliation is the goal. For increasing numbers of individuals, challenging transitions also occur from illness to health. Transitions also occur with movement from one level of care to another, such as from inpatient acute care to subacute care, nursing home, rehabilitation facility, home care, or hospice care. The process of planning for these transitions is frequently referred to as

  9. About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through

  10. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Small Intestine Cancer

    The treatment sections of this summary are organized according to histopathologic type rather than stage. Definitions of TNMThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has designated staging by TNM classification to define small intestine cancer.[1]Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)aa Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Small intestine. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 127-32.b The nonperitonealized perimuscular tissue is, for jejunum and ileum, part of the mesentery and, for duodenum in areas where serosa is lacking, part of the interface with the pancreas.TXPrimary tumor cannot be assessed.T0No evidence of primary tumor.TisCarcinomain situ.T1aTumor invades lamina propria.T1bTumor invades submucosa.bT2Tumor invades muscularis propria.T3Tumor invades through the muscularis propria into the subserosa or into the nonperitonealized perimuscular tissue (mesentery or retroperitoneum) with extension ≤2

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