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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 27 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.

  2. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Rectal Cancer

    Treatment decisions should be made with reference to the TNM classification system,[1] rather than the older Dukes or the Modified Astler-Coller classification schema. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and a National Cancer Institute-sponsored panel recommended that at least 12 lymph nodes be examined in patients with colon and rectal cancer to confirm the absence of nodal involvement by the tumor.[2,3,4] This recommendation takes into consideration that the number of lymph nodes examined is a reflection of both the aggressiveness of lymphovascular mesenteric dissection at the time of surgical resection and the pathologic identification of nodes in the specimen. Retrospective studies, such as Intergroup trial INT-0089 [EST-2288], have demonstrated that the number of lymph nodes examined in colon and rectal surgery may be associated with patient outcome.[5,6,7,8]The staging system does not apply to the following histologies:Sarcoma. (See the

  3. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent NSCLC Treatment

    Standard Treatment Options for Recurrent NSCLCStandard treatment options for recurrent NSCLC include the following: Radiation therapy (for palliation).[1]Chemotherapy or kinase inhibitors alone, including the following for patients who have previously received platinum chemotherapy:Docetaxel.[2,3]Pemetrexed.[3]Erlotinib after failure of both platinum-based and docetaxel chemotherapies.[4]Gefitinib.[5]Crizotinib for EML4-ALK translocations.[6,7]EGFR inhibitors in patients with or without EGFR mutations.EML4-ALK inhibitors in patients with EML-ALK translocations.Surgical resection of isolated cerebral metastasis (for highly selected patients).[8]Laser therapy or interstitial radiation therapy (for endobronchial lesions).[9]Stereotactic radiation surgery (for highly selected patients).[10,11]Radiation therapy may provide excellent palliation of symptoms from a localized tumor mass.The use of chemotherapy has produced objective responses and small

  4. Transitional Care Planning (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - End-of-Life Decisions

    Caring for a person with cancer starts after symptoms begin and the diagnosis is made and continues until the patient is in remission, is cured, or has died. (See the PDQ summaries on Last Days of Life and Grief, Bereavement, and Coping With Loss for more information.) End-of-life decisions should be made soon after the diagnosis, before there is a need for them. These issues are not pleasant or easy to think about, but planning for them can help relieve the burden on family members to make major decisions for the patient at a time when they are likely to be emotionally upset. A patient's views may reflect his or her philosophical, moral, religious, or spiritual background. If a person has certain feelings about end-of-life issues, these feelings should be made known so that they can be carried out. Since these are sensitive issues, they are often not discussed by patients, families, or doctors. People often feel that there will be plenty of time to talk later about the issues. Many

  5. Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Children and Adolescents with Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Low-Risk Classical Childhood Hodgkin LymphomaTreatment of low-risk classical childhood Hodgkin lymphoma is combination chemotherapy. Sometimes radiation therapy is also given to the areas with cancer. Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I childhood Hodgkin lymphoma and stage II childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Intermediate-Risk Classical Childhood Hodgkin LymphomaTreatment of intermediate-risk classical childhood Hodgkin lymphoma is combination chemotherapy. Radiation therapy may also be given to the areas with cancer.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I childhood Hodgkin lymphoma, stage II

  6. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Pheochromocytoma During Pregnancy

    Pheochromocytoma diagnosed during pregnancy is extremely rare (0.007% of all pregnancies).[1,2] However, this situation deserves mention because women with hereditary conditions that increase the risk of developing pheochromocytoma are often also of child-bearing age, and the outcome of undiagnosed pheochromocytoma during pregnancy can be catastrophic.DiagnosisPrenatal diagnosis clearly results in decreased mortality for both mother and neonate.[3] Prior to 1970, a prenatal diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was made in only approximately 25% of cases, and the mortality rate for both mother and neonate was around 50%.[4,5] The prenatal diagnosis rate rose to greater than 80% through the 1980s and 1990s, and decreased maternal and neonatal mortality rates were 6% and 15%, respectively.[4,6]The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma should be suspected in any pregnant woman who develops hypertension in the first trimester, paroxysmal hypertension, or hypertension that is unusually difficult to

  7. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000258010-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Endometrial Cancer Screening

  8. Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  9. Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  10. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Lycopene

    OverviewThis section contains the following key information:Lycopene is a carotenoid, a natural pigment made by plants and various fruits and vegetables, including tomatoes, apricot, guava, and watermelon.Lycopene's absorption is improved with concurrent dietary fat intake.Lycopene inhibits androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells in vitro and, along with some of its metabolites, reduces prostate cancer cell proliferation and may modulate cell-cycle progression.Lycopene may also affect the insulin-like growth factor intracellular pathway in prostate cancer cells.Results from several in vitro and animal studies have indicated that lycopene may have chemopreventive effects for cancers of the prostate, skin, breast, lung, and liver; however, human trials have been inconsistent in their findings. Clinical trials utilizing lycopene in prostate cancer patients with various different clinical presentations (e.g., early stage, prostate-specific

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