Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (06 / 09 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Superior Vena Cava Syndrome in Children
Check NCI's list of cancer clinical trials for U.S. supportive and palliative care trials about dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion and malignant pericardial effusion that are now accepting participants. The list of trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria. General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (09 / 05 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of Primary Refractory / Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children and Adolescents
The excellent response to frontline therapy among children and adolescents with Hodgkin lymphoma limits opportunities to evaluate second-line (salvage) therapy. Because of the small number of patients that fail primary therapy, no uniform second-line treatment strategy exists for this patient population. Adverse prognostic factors after relapse include the following:[Level of evidence: 3iiA] The presence of B symptoms (fever, weight loss, and night sweats) and extranodal disease.Early relapse (occurring between 3–12 months from the end of therapy).[3,4]Inadequate response to initial second-line therapy.Children with localized favorable (relapse ≥12 months after completing therapy) disease recurrences whose original therapy involved reduced cycles of risk-adapted therapy or with chemotherapy alone and/or low-dose involved-field radiation therapy (LD-IRFT) consolidation have a high likelihood of achieving long-term survival following treatment with more intensive
Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (09 / 03 / 2014)
Standard treatment options: Surgical resection if radiation therapy fails and if technically feasible.Radiation therapy when surgery fails if not previously given in curative doses that preclude further treatment. Surgical salvage when surgery fails and if technically feasible.Treatment options under clinical evaluation: Clinical trials evaluating the use of chemotherapy should be considered.[3,4,5,6]Clinical trials evaluating the use of hyperthermia and radiation therapy.Posttreatment follow-up:These patients should have a careful head and neck examination to look for recurrence monthly for the first posttreatment year, every 2 months for the second year, every 3 months for the third year, and every 6 months thereafter. If the patient has metastatic disease or local recurrence that is no longer amenable to surgery or radiation, chemotherapy should be considered.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now
Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - What is screening?
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...
Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Hypopharyngeal Cancer
Cancer of the hypopharynx is uncommon; approximately 2,500 new cases are diagnosed in the United States each year.[ 1 ] The peak incidence of this cancer occurs in males and females aged 50 to 60 years.[ 2 ] Excessive alcohol and tobacco use are the primary risk factors for hypopharyngeal cancer.[ 3,4 ] In the United States,hypopharyngeal cancers are more common in men than in women.[ 5 ] In ...
Breast Cancer Screening - Treatment Options for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer may include the following:Chemotherapy followed by surgery (breast-conserving surgery, total mastectomy, or modified radical mastectomy) and lymph node dissection.A clinical trial of combination chemotherapy with drugs that are often used to treat breast cancer and drugs that are not usually used to treat breast cancer.A clinical trial of PARP inhibitor therapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with triple-negative breast cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
EpidemiologyAlthough they comprise fewer than 1% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract. It has been estimated that there are 3,300 to 6,000 new GIST cases per year in the United States. A study based on Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry data found that the age-adjusted yearly incidence of GIST in the United States was 6.8 per million from 1992 to 2000. However, the true incidence is not known, in part because many tumors have not been tested for the characteristic KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) gene mutations. In addition, small, indolent GIST, only a few millimeters in diameter, are common in the general population and are not included in cancer registries.[4,5] GIST are equally distributed across all geographic and ethnic groups and men and women are equally affected. Most patients present between the ages
Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Laboratory / Animal / Preclinical Studies
Effects of Newcastle Disease Virus on Human Cancer CellsThe ability of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) to replicate efficiently in human cancer cells has been demonstrated in both laboratory studies and animal studies.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12] Reviewed in [13,14] Several of these studies have provided much of the evidence that lytic strains of NDV are also oncolytic.[3,4,5,6,8,9,10,12] Reviewed in Strain 73-T, which is lytic, has been shown to replicate efficiently in human tumor cells  and kill the following types of human cancer cells in vitro: fibrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, neuroblastoma, bladder carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, melanoma, Wilms tumor, and myeloid leukemia;[3,6,8,9] however, this strain did not kill human B-cell lymphoma (i.e., Burkitt lymphoma) cells in vitro. In addition, strain 73-T did not kill normal, proliferating human white blood cells or normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro,[3,6,8] but it killed normal human lung fibroblasts in vitro at the same