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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment for Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance

    Treatment Options for Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS)Treatment options for MGUS include the following:Watchful waiting.Watchful waitingMultiple myeloma, other plasma cell dyscrasia, or lymphoma will develop in 12% of patients by 10 years, 25% by 20 years, and 30% by 25 years. All patients with MGUS should be kept under observation to detect increases in M protein levels and development of a plasma cell dyscrasia. Higher levels of initial M protein levels may correlate with increased risk of progression to multiple myeloma.[1,2] In a large retrospective report, the risk of progression at 20 years was 14% for an initial monoclonal protein level of 0.5 g/dL or less, 25% for a level of 1.5 g/dL, 41% for a level of 2.0 g/dL, 49% for a level of 2.5 g/dL, and 64% for a level of 3.0 g/dL.[1]Treatment is delayed until the disease progresses to the stage that symptoms or signs appear.Patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma do not respond more frequently, achieve

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  3. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with childhood liver cancer.Different types of treatments are available for children with liver cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.Because cancer in children is rare, taking part in a clinical trial should be considered. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Children with liver cancer should have their treatment planned by a team of healthcare providers who are experts in treating this rare childhood cancer.Treatment will be overseen by a pediatric oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The

  4. Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  5. nci_ncicdr0000062843-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Childhood Ependymoma Treatment

  6. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Small Intestine Cancer

    Statistics Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from small intestine cancer in the United States in 2010:[ 1 ] New cases: 6,960. Deaths: 1,100. Adenocarcinoma,lymphoma,sarcoma,and carcinoid tumors account for the majority of small intestine malignancies,which,as a whole,account for only 1% to 2% of all gastrointestinal malignancies.[ 2,3,4,5 ] As in other gastrointestinal ...

  7. Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - History

    Mistletoe has been used for centuries for its medicinal properties. Reviewed in [1,2,3,4,5,6] It was reportedly used by the Druids and the ancient Greeks, and it appears in legend and folklore as a panacea. It has been used in various forms to treat cancer, epilepsy, infertility, menopausal symptoms, nervous tension, asthma, hypertension, headache, and dermatitis. Modern interest in mistletoe as an anticancer treatment began in the 1920s. Reports of more than 30 clinical studies of mistletoe as a treatment for people with cancer have been published since the early 1960s.[7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36] Reviewed in [3,37,38] Most of the results of these studies were published exclusively in German. (Refer to the Human/Clinical Studies section of this summary for more information.)As indicated previously (refer to the General Information section of this summary for more information), proposed mechanisms of action

  8. Gallbladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Unresectable, Recurrent, or Metastatic Gallbladder Cancer

    These patients are not curable. Significant symptomatic benefit can often be achieved with relief of biliary obstruction. A few patients have very slow-growing tumors and may live several years. Patients with unresectable, recurrent, or metastatic gallbladder cancer should be considered for inclusion in clinical trials whenever possible. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Treatment options:Relief of biliary obstruction is warranted when symptoms such as pruritus and hepatic dysfunction outweigh other symptoms from the cancer. The preferred approach is percutaneous transhepatic drainage or endoscopically placed stents;[1] surgical bypass may be appropriate when these approaches are infeasible. Palliative radiation therapy after biliary drainage may be beneficial, and patients may be candidates for inclusion in clinical trials that explore ways to improve the effects of radiation therapy with various radiation sensitizers such as hyperthermia,

  9. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Prevalence

    Reviews of the literature [1] note that post-traumatic stress has been studied in a variety of cancers, including melanoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, and mixed cancers. The incidence of the full syndrome of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (meeting the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition [DSM-IV], diagnostic criteria) ranges from 3% to 4% in early-stage patients recently diagnosed to 35% in patients evaluated after treatment. When incidence of PTSD-like symptoms (not meeting the full diagnostic criteria) are measured, the rates are higher, ranging from 20% in patients with early-stage cancer to 80% in those with recurrent cancer.The earliest research (predating DSM-IV) on PTSD among survivors of cancer concentrated on the prevalence and characteristics of the disorder in patients who had been or were undergoing treatment, adult and child survivors of cancer, and/or the family members of these patients and survivors. A wide variety of

  10. Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

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