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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark)

    What is cartilage?Cartilage is a type of tough, flexible connective tissue that forms parts of the skeleton in many animals. Cartilage contains cells called chondrocytes, which are surrounded by collagen (a fibrous protein) and proteoglycans, which are made of protein and carbohydrate.Products containing cartilage are sold in the United States as dietary supplements. Companies that make cartilage products may not have a process in place to check that all batches they make are exactly the same. This means different batches of a cartilage product may contain different amounts or strengths of ingredients. Different binding agents (substances that make loose mixtures stick together) and fillers may be used in different batches. Therefore, the results of a particular clinical trial may be true only for the batch that was used in the study. What is the history of the discovery and use of cartilage as a complementary or alternative treatment for cancer?Cartilage from cows (bovine

  2. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Colon Cancer

    Table 6. Standard Treatment Options for Stages 0–III Colon CancerStage (TNM Staging Criteria)Standard Treatment OptionsStage 0 Colon CancerSurgeryStage I Colon CancerSurgeryStage II Colon CancerSurgeryStage III Colon CancerSurgery Adjuvant chemotherapyTable 7. Treatment Options for Stage IV and Recurrent Colon CancerStage (TNM Staging Criteria)Treatment OptionsTreatment of Liver MetastasisSurgeryNeoadjuvant chemotherapyLocal ablationAdjuvant chemotherapyIntra-arterial chemotherapyTreatment of Stage IV and Recurrent Colon CancerSurgeryChemotherapy and targeted therapySecond-line chemotherapyPrimary Surgical TherapyStandard treatment for patients with colon cancer has been open surgical resection of the primary and regional lymph nodes for localized disease.The role of laparoscopic techniques [1,2,3,4] in the treatment of colon cancer has been examined in two studies.Evidence (laparoscopic techniques):A multicenter, prospective, randomized, noninferiority trial

  3. Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor that is characterized by the direct formation of bone or osteoid tissue by the tumor cells. The World Health Organization's histologic classification [1] of bone tumors separates the osteosarcomas into central (medullary) and surface (peripheral) [2,3] tumors and recognizes a number of subtypes within each group. Central (Medullary) TumorsConventional central osteosarcomas. Telangiectatic osteosarcomas.[4,5]Intraosseous well-differentiated (low-grade) osteosarcomas.Small-cell osteosarcomas.Surface (Peripheral) Tumors Parosteal (juxtacortical) well-differentiated (low-grade) osteosarcomas.[6,7] Periosteal osteosarcoma: low-grade to intermediate-grade osteosarcomas.[8,9,10] High-grade surface osteosarcomas.[3,11,12]The most common pathologic subtype is conventional central osteosarcoma, which is characterized by areas of necrosis, atypical mitoses, and malignant osteoid tissue and/or cartilage. The other subtypes are much less common, each occurring at

  4. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about testicular cancer screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

  5. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  6. Levels of Evidence for Supportive and Palliative Care Studies (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Study Design Categories, Definitions, and Levels of Evidence

    Prospective, randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses of prospective, randomized, controlled trials.The randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial is the gold standard of study design. To achieve this ranking, the study allocation must be blinded to the investigator both before and after the randomization and the assignment to intervention group. This design provides protection from allocation bias by the investigator and from bias in the assessment of outcomes by both the investigator and the patient.Unfortunately, double-blinding after intervention assignment is not always possible because procedures or side effects often vary substantially among study interventions in ways that are obvious to both the investigator and the patient. In some cases, however, it should be possible to blind the investigator and the patient until the randomization has been made, even if intervention delivery cannot be blinded. Furthermore, randomized trials are still subject to imbalances

  7. Laetrile/Amygdalin (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About Laetrile / Amygdalin

    What is laetrile?Laetrile is a compound that has been used as a treatment for people with cancer worldwide. It is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a treatment for cancer or any other medical condition. The term laetrile comes from 2 words (laevorotatory and mandelonitrile) and is used to describe a purified form of the chemical amygdalin. Amygdalin is a plant compound that contains sugar and produces cyanide. Cyanide is believed to be the active cancer-killing ingredient in laetrile. Amygdalin is found in the pits of many fruits and in raw nuts. It is also found in other plants such as lima beans, clover, and sorghum. The names laetrile, Laetrile, and amygdalin are often used in place of one another, but they are not the same product. The chemical make-up of Laetrile patented in the United States is different from the laetrile/amygdalin produced in Mexico. The patented Laetrile is a partly synthetic (man-made) form of amygdalin, while the laetrile/amygdalin

  8. Fatigue (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Assessment of Fatigue

    An assessment is done to find out the level of fatigue and how it affects the patient's daily life.There is no test to diagnose fatigue, so it is important for the patient to tell family members and the health care team if fatigue is a problem. To assess fatigue, the patient is asked to describe how bad the fatigue is, how it affects daily activities, and what makes the fatigue better or worse. The doctor will look for causes of fatigue that can be treated. An assessment of fatigue includes a physical exam and blood tests. The assessment process may include the following:Physical exam:This is an exam of the body to check general signs of health or anything that seems unusual. The doctor will check for problems such as trouble breathing or loss of muscle strength. The patient's walking, posture, and joint movements will be checked.Rating the level of fatigue: The patient is asked to rate the level of fatigue (how bad the fatigue is). There is no standard way to rate fatigue. The doctor

  9. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About CAM

    National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) facilitates research and evaluation of complementary and alternative practices, and provides information about a variety of approaches to health professionals and the public.NCCAM ClearinghousePost Office Box 7923 Gaithersburg, MD 20898–7923Telephone: 1–888–644–6226 (toll free) 301–519–3153 (for International callers)TTY (for deaf and hard of hearing callers): 1–866–464–3615Fax: 1–866–464–3616E-mail: info@nccam.nih.gov Web site: http://nccam.nih.govCAM on PubMedNCCAM and the NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM) jointly developed CAM on PubMed, a free and easy-to-use search tool for finding CAM-related journal citations. As a subset of the NLM's PubMed bibliographic database, CAM on PubMed features more than 230,000 references and abstracts for CAM-related articles from

  10. Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062875-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening

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