Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Rectal Cancer
Recurrent rectal cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the rectum or in other parts of the body, such as the colon, pelvis, liver, or lungs.
Family Caregivers in Cancer: Roles and Challenges (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Physicians Interacting With Family Caregivers
Patients and caregivers may present with different needs, making it difficult to decide whose needs take priority. This situation is especially common when it comes to truth-telling, with family members asking the health care team to keep bad news a secret from the cancer patient, or vice versa.Communication With CaregiversCultural differences can profoundly affect communication with the patient and family. For example, some Asian Americans believe that talking about death or dying is bad luck. Such differences complicate discussions about prognosis, treatment choices, and even the use of terms such as chemotherapy, radiation, and hospice. Keeping a life-threatening diagnosis a secret from the patient and avoiding discussions of disease progression further add to a caregiver's sense of burden, isolation, and responsibility. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Taiwan to determine the frequency and difficulty of decisions encountered by bereaved caregivers of terminally
Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview
Prevention and control of nausea and vomiting are paramount in the treatment of cancer patients. Nausea and vomiting can result in serious metabolic derangements,nutritional depletion and anorexia,deterioration of patients’ physical and mental status,esophageal tears,fractures,wound dehiscence,withdrawal from potentially useful and curative antineoplastic treatment,and degeneration of ...
Antineoplastons (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Human / Clinical Studies
To date, no phase III randomized, controlled trials of antineoplastons as a treatment for cancer have been conducted. Publications have taken the form of case reports, phase I clinical trials, toxicity studies, and phase II clinical trials. Phase I toxicity studies are the first group discussed below. The studies are categorized by the antineoplaston investigated. The second group of studies involves patients with various malignancies. Table 1 is a summary of dose regimens for all human studies. Table 2 summarizes the following clinical trials and appears at the end of this section.Phase I Toxicity Studies for Specific AntineoplastonsThe studies discussed below are phase I toxicity studies in patients with various types of malignancies, including bladder cancer, breast cancer, and leukemias. The studies are listed by the antineoplastons administered. The effect of a specific antineoplaston under investigation is difficult to ascertain
Oropharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage
A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Stage I Oropharyngeal CancerTreatment of stage I oropharyngeal cancer may include the following:Radiation therapy.Surgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I oropharyngeal cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Stage II Oropharyngeal CancerTreatment of stage II oropharyngeal cancer may include the following:Radiation therapy (external radiation therapy and/or internal radiation therapy).Surgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer
Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Osteosarcoma and MFH of Bone
Approximately 50% of relapses occur within 18 months of therapy termination, and only 5% of recurrences develop beyond 5 years.[1,2,3,4] In 564 patients with a recurrence, patients whose disease recurred within 2 years of diagnosis had a worse prognosis than did patients whose disease recurred after 2 years. Patients with a good histologic response to initial preoperative chemotherapy had a better overall survival (OS) after recurrence than did poor responders. The probability of developing lung metastases at 5 years is 28% in patients presenting with localized disease. In two large series, the incidence of recurrence by site was as follows: lung only (65%–80%), bone only (8%–10%), local recurrence only (4%–7%), and combined relapse (10%–15%).[4,6] Abdominal metastases are rare but may occur as late as 4 years after diagnosis.Patients with recurrent osteosarcoma should be assessed for surgical resectability, as they may sometimes be cured with aggressive surgical
Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of Evidence
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Prevention of Prostate Cancer,Prostate Cancer Treatment,and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. Digital Rectal Examination and Prostate-Specific Antigen Benefits The evidence is insufficient to determine whether screening for prostate cancer with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or digital rectal exam (DRE) reduces ...
Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Breast Cancer Screening Modalities—Beyond Mammography
Clinical Breast ExaminationNo randomized trials of clinical breast examination (CBE) as a sole screening modality have yet been reported. The Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) compared high-quality CBE plus mammography to CBE alone in women aged 50 to 59 years (refer to the Clinical Breast Examination section in the Overview section of this summary for more information). CBE, lasting 5 to 10 minutes per breast, was conducted by trained health professionals, with periodic evaluations of performance quality. The frequency of cancer diagnosis, stage, interval cancers, and breast cancer mortality were similar in the two groups and compared favorably with other trials of mammography alone, perhaps because of the careful training and supervision of the health professionals performing CBE. Breast cancer mortality with follow-up 11 to 16 years after entry (mean = 13 years) was similar in the two screening arms (mortality rate ratio, 1.02 [95% confidence interval
PC-SPES (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 07 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.