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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. MDR3 Deficiency

    Summary MDR3 deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that predominantly affects the liver. The disorder represents a spectrum of diseases that can range from mild to severe. The main symptom is interruption or suppression of the flow of bile from the liver (cholestasis). In addition,affected individuals may be prone to forming gallstones. Cholestasis in MDR3 deficiency occurs due to defects ...

  2. Grief, Bereavement, and Coping With Loss (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062828-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Grief, Bereavement, and Coping With Loss

  3. Delirium (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Incidence and Prevalence

    Occurrence rates range from 28% to 48% in patients with advanced cancer on admission to hospital or hospice,[1,2,3] and approximately 85% to 90% of these patients will experience delirium in the hours to days before death.[3,4,5,6] The term acute confusional state has also been used to describe this syndrome; in the last days of life, the condition sometimes referred to as terminal restlessness probably represents a terminal delirium.[7] Although delirium clearly has a recognized association with the dying phase, many episodes of delirium are reversible; therapeutic intervention can result in delirium reversal, or at least improvement, in 30% to 75% of episodes.[3,5,8,9,10,11] Variability in reported occurrence rates and clinical outcomes most likely reflects sampling from different clinical settings or different stages in the clinical trajectory of cancer, in addition to inconsistency in diagnostic terminology.[12]References: Minagawa H, Uchitomi Y, Yamawaki S, et al.: Psychiatric

  4. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System (CNS) Atypical Teratoid / Rhabdoid Tumor

    Central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain.Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a very rare, fast-growing tumor of the brain and spinal cord. It usually occurs in children aged three years and younger, although it can occur in older children and adults. About half of these tumors form in the cerebellum or brain stem. The cerebellum is the part of the brain that controls movement, balance, and posture. The brain stem controls breathing, heart rate, and the nerves and muscles used in seeing, hearing, walking, talking, and eating. AT/RT may also be found in other parts of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).Anatomy of the brain, showing the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and other parts of the brain.Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the pineal and pituitary glands, optic nerve, ventricles (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in blue), and

  5. Oral Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Oral Cancer Prevention

    Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.The following are risk factors for oral cancer:Tobacco useUsing tobacco is the leading cause of oral cancer.All forms of tobacco, including cigarettes, pipes, cigars, and chewing (smokeless) tobacco, can cause oral cancer. For cigarette smokers, the risk of oral cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Tobacco use is most likely to cause oral cancer in the floor of the mouth, but also causes cancer in other parts of mouth and throat.The risk of oral cancer is greater in people who use both tobacco and alcohol than it

  6. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

    Recurrent intraocular melanoma is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The melanoma may come back in the eye or in other parts of the body.

  7. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with ovarian germ cell tumors. Different types of treatment are available for patients with ovarian germ cell tumor. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Four types of standard treatment are used: SurgerySurgery is the most common treatment of ovarian germ cell tumor. A doctor may take out the cancer using one of the following types of surgery. Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: A surgical procedure to remove one ovary and one fallopian

  8. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Breast Cancer Prevention

    Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.NCI's Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool uses a woman's risk factors to estimate her risk for breast cancer during the next five years and up to age 90. This online tool is meant to be used by a health care provider. For more information on breast cancer risk, call 1-800-4-CANCER.The following risk factors may increase the risk of breast cancer:Estrogen (made in the body)Estrogen is a hormone made by the body. It helps the body develop and maintain female sex characteristics. Being exposed to estrogen over a long time may increase the risk

  9. Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage II Endometrial Cancer

    Standard treatment options:If cervical involvement is documented, options include radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection.If the cervix is clinically uninvolved but extension to the cervix is documented on postoperative pathology, radiation therapy should be considered.The completed GOG-LAP2 trial included 2,616 patients with clinical stage I to IIA disease and randomly assigned them two-to-one to comprehensive surgical staging via laparoscopy or laparotomy.[1] Time to recurrence was the primary endpoint, with noninferiority defined as a difference in recurrence rate of less than 5.3% between the two groups at 3 years. The recurrence rate at 3 years was 10.24% for patients in the laparotomy arm, compared with 11.39% for patients in the laparoscopy arm, with an estimated difference between groups of 1.14% (90% lower bound, -1.278; 95% upper bound, 3.996). Although this difference was lower than the prespecified limit, the

  10. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Childhood Myxopapillary Ependymoma

    Recurrence is not uncommon in both benign and malignant childhood brain tumors and may develop many years after initial treatment.[1] For ependymoma, late recurrence beyond 10 to 15 years has been reported.[2,3] Disease generally recurs at the primary tumor site, even in children with malignant ependymomas.[4,5] Systemic relapse is extremely rare. At time of relapse, a complete evaluation for extent of recurrence is indicated for all patients. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the extent of the tumor, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the recurrent lesion, and the clinical picture. Patients with recurrent ependymomas who have not previously received radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy should be considered for treatment with these modalities.[6][Level of evidence: 3iiiB] In addition, patients may be candidates for focal retreatment with various radiation modalities, including stereotactic

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