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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062754-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Testicular Cancer Screening

  2. Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  3. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Childhood Astrocytomas

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your child's doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for your child.Childhood Low-Grade AstrocytomasWhen the tumor is first diagnosed, treatment for childhood low-grade astrocytoma depends on the location of the tumor and is usually surgery. An MRI is done after surgery to see if there is tumor remaining. If the tumor was completely removed by surgery, more treatment may not be needed and the child is closely watched to see if symptoms appear or change. This is also called watchful waiting. If there is tumor remaining after surgery, treatment may include the following:Watchful waiting.More surgery to remove the tumor.Cerebrospinal fluid diversion.Radiation therapy, which may include conformal radiation therapy or stereotactic radiation therapy.Combination chemotherapy with or without

  4. Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Significance

    Natural History, Incidence, and MortalityIn 2013, it is estimated that 17,990 Americans will be diagnosed with esophageal cancer, and 15,210 will die of this malignancy.[1] Of the new cases, it is estimated that 14,440 will occur in men and 3,550 will occur in women. Two histologic types account for the majority of malignant esophageal neoplasms: adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. The epidemiology of these types varies markedly. In the 1960s, squamous cell cancers comprised more than 90% of all esophageal tumors. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinomas has risen considerably for the past 2 decades, such that it is now more prevalent than squamous cell cancer in the United States and Western Europe, with most tumors located in the distal esophagus.[2] Although the overall incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is declining, this histologic type remains six times more likely to occur in black males than in white males.[3] Incidence rates generally

  5. Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (06 / 26 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Epidemic Kaposi Sarcoma TreatmentAdded text to state that bevacizumab, the humanized, antivascular, epithelial growth–factor monoclonal antibody, had a response rate in 5 of 16 patients who did not improve after the institution of highly active antiretroviral treatment and chemotherapy (cited Uldrick et al. as reference 20 and level of evidence 3iiiDiv).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

  6. Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  7. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  8. Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

    Mistletoe, a semiparasitic plant, holds interest as a potential anticancer agent because extracts derived from it have been shown to kill cancer cells in vitro[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] Reviewed in [9,10] and to stimulate immune system cells both in vitro and in vivo.[11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19] Reviewed in [10,20,21,22,23,24] Two components of mistletoe, namely viscotoxins and lectins, may be responsible for these effects.[11,12,13,17,18,19,25,26,27,28,29,30,31] Reviewed in [10,21,22,23,32] Viscotoxins are small proteins that exhibit cell-killing activity and possible immune-system-stimulating activity.[1,6,18,19] Reviewed in [33,34] Lectins are complex molecules made of both protein and carbohydrates that are capable of binding to the outside of cells (e.g., immune system cells) and inducing biochemical changes in them. Reviewed in [10,35,36,37,38] In view of mistletoe's ability to stimulate the immune system, it has been classified as a type of biological response modifier.

  9. Vulvar Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Vulvar Cancer

    For more information from the National Cancer Institute about vulvar cancer, see the following:Vulvar Cancer Home PageLasers in Cancer TreatmentDrugs Approved to Treat Vulvar CancerHuman Papillomaviruses and CancerFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates

  10. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    Definitions of TNMThe American Joint Committee on Cancer has designated staging by TNM classification to define metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary.[1]Table 1. Regional Lymph Nodes (N)aa Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Head and neck. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 21-8.b A designation of U or L may be used for any N stage to indicate metastasis above the lower border of the cricoid (U) or below the lower border of the cricoid (L). Similarly, clinical/radiological ECS should be recorded as E-- or E+, and histopathologic ECS should be designated En, Em, or Eg.NXRegional lymph nodes cannot be assessed.N0No regional lymph node metastasis.N1bMetastasis in a single ipsilateral lymph node, ≤3 cm in greatest dimension.N2bMetastasis in a single isilateral lymph node, >3 cm but not >6 cm in greatest dimension; or in multiple ipsilateral lymph nodes, none >6 cm in greatest dimension; or

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