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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Refer to the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for a more detailed discussion of the roles of surgery and radiation therapy.Low-grade soft tissue sarcomas have little metastatic potential, but they have a propensity to recur locally. Accordingly, surgical excision with negative tissue margins of 1 cm to 2 cm or larger in all directions is the treatment of choice for patients with these early-stage sarcomas.[1,2,3] The Mohs surgical technique may be considered as an alternative to wide surgical excision for the very rare, small, well-differentiated primary sarcomas of the skin when cosmetic results are considered to be important, as margins can be assured with minimal normal tissue removal.[4]Carefully executed high-dose radiation therapy using a shrinking-field technique may be beneficial for unresectable tumors or for resectable tumors in which a high likelihood of residual disease is thought to be present when margins are judged to be inadequate, and when wider

  2. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - CNS-directed Therapy for Childhood ALL

    Approximately 3% of patients have detectable central nervous system, (CNS) involvement by conventional criteria at diagnosis (cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] specimen with ≥5 white blood cell [WBC]/μL with lymphoblasts and/or the presence of cranial nerve palsies). However, unless specific therapy is directed toward the CNS, the majority of children will eventually develop overt CNS leukemia. Therefore, all children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) should receive systemic combination chemotherapy together with some form of CNS prophylaxis.Because the CNS is a sanctuary site (i.e., an anatomic space that is poorly penetrated by many of the systemically administered chemotherapy agents typically used to treat ALL), specific CNS-directed therapies must be instituted early in treatment to eliminate clinically evident CNS disease at diagnosis and to prevent CNS relapse in all patients. Historically, survival rates for children with ALL improved

  3. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (06 / 24 / 2014)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General Information About Plasma Cell NeoplasmsAdded text to include a list of clinical symptoms and signs of primary amyloidosis: fatigue, purpura, enlarged tongue, diarrhea, edema, and lower-extremity paresthesias.Revised text to state that elevated serum levels of cardiac troponins, amino-terminal fragment brain-type natriuretic peptide, and serum-free light chains are poor prognostic factors. Stage Information About Plasma Cell NeoplasmsRevised text to state that newer clinical investigations are stratifying patients with multiple myeloma into so-called good-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups (cited Avet-Loiseau et al. as reference 8).Treatment for Amyloidosis Associated With Plasma Cell NeoplasmsRevised text to state that treatment options for amyloidosis associated with plasma

  4. Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  5. Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000257991-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment

  6. Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Before initiating treatment of a patient with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an experienced lung cancer pathologist should review the pathologic material.Pathologic ClassificationThe current classification of subtypes of SCLC includes the following:[1]Small cell carcinoma.Combined small cell carcinoma (i.e., SCLC combined with neoplastic squamous and/or glandular components).SCLC arising from neuroendocrine cells forms one extreme of the spectrum of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung.Neuroendocrine tumors include the following:Low-grade typical carcinoid.Intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid.High-grade neuroendocrine tumors including large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and SCLC.Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and epidemiology, these tumors are classified separately in the World Health Organization (WHO) revised classification. The variant form of SCLC called mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma was not retained in the revised WHO classification.

  7. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Stage III Merkel cell carcinoma includes patients with nodal disease.Standard treatment options:Margin-negative local excision, attempting to maintain function.Sentinel node procedure, possibly followed by more definitive regional node surgery if positive node(s) are found.Local and regional nodal radiation, especially if there is concern about the adequacy of the primary tumor excision margin or the risk of local-regional recurrence following the nodal surgery (e.g., multiple primary nodes, extracapsular extension, lymphovascular invasion, and evidence of in-transit metastases).Treatment options under clinical evaluation:Systemic chemotherapy might be administered to patients thought to be of the highest risk of recurrence with the understanding that existing data have not proven a clinical survival benefit. Enrollment in clinical trials is encouraged.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with

  8. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 16 / 2012)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.OverviewRevised text to state that the effects of aromatherapy are theorized to result from the binding of chemical components in the essential oil to receptors in the olfactory bulb, impacting the brain's emotional center, the limbic system.Revised text to state that aromatherapy products are not subject to approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration unless there is a claim for treatment of specific diseases.General InformationRevised text to state that there are now specific courses for licensed health professionals that give nursing or continuing medical education contact hours, including a small research component and information on evaluating/measuring outcomes.HistoryAdded Hines et al. as reference 40.Revised text to state that the neurobiological view, which focuses mostly on the

  9. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (04 / 24 / 2014)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  10. Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

    Hot flashes and night sweats are common in cancer survivors, particularly women, but they can also occur in men. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are complex. Treatment options are broad-based, including hormonal agents, nonhormonal pharmacotherapies, and diverse integrative medicine modalities.[1] Hot flashes occur in approximately two-thirds of postmenopausal women with a breast cancer history and are associated with night sweats in 44%.[2,3] For most breast cancer and prostate cancer patients, hot flash intensity is moderate to severe. Sweating can be part of the hot flash complex that characterizes the vasomotor instability of menopause. Physiologically, sweating mediates core body temperature by producing transdermal evaporative heat loss.[4,5] Hot flashes accompanied by sweating that occur during the sleeping hours are often called night sweats.[6] Another synonym found in the literature is hot flushes.Approximately 20% of women without breast cancer seek medical treatment for

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