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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Laboratory / Animal / Preclinical Studies

    The immune-system -stimulating and cytotoxic properties of mistletoe have been investigated in laboratory and animal studies.Viscotoxins and lectins have been investigated as active components in mistletoe; however, most research has focused on the lectins.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7] Reviewed in [8,9] Purified mistletoe lectins have demonstrated cytotoxic and immune-system-stimulating activities. To date, four different lectins: ML-1, ML-2, ML-3, and Viscum albumchitin -binding agglutinin have been identified in mistletoe extracts. ML-1 (or viscumin) may be responsible for many of mistletoe's biological effects. When a laboratory method was used to selectively deplete ML-1 from Viscum album extracts, their cytotoxic and immune-system-stimulating properties were markedly reduced.[10,11] It should be noted that fermentation eliminates most of the ML-1 in mistletoe extracts.[12] Reviewed in [13,14] Polysaccharide and oligosaccharide components of mistletoe extracts with substantial

  2. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark)

    What is cartilage?Cartilage is a type of tough, flexible connective tissue that forms parts of the skeleton in many animals. Cartilage contains cells called chondrocytes, which are surrounded by collagen (a fibrous protein) and proteoglycans, which are made of protein and carbohydrate.Products containing cartilage are sold in the United States as dietary supplements. Companies that make cartilage products may not have a process in place to check that all batches they make are exactly the same. This means different batches of a cartilage product may contain different amounts or strengths of ingredients. Different binding agents (substances that make loose mixtures stick together) and fillers may be used in different batches. Therefore, the results of a particular clinical trial may be true only for the batch that was used in the study. What is the history of the discovery and use of cartilage as a complementary or alternative treatment for cancer?Cartilage from cows (bovine

  3. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Stomach Cancer

    Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the stomach.The stomach is a J-shaped organ in the upper abdomen. It is part of the digestive system, which processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water) in foods that are eaten and helps pass waste material out of the body. Food moves from the throat to the stomach through a hollow, muscular tube called the esophagus. After leaving the stomach, partly-digested food passes into the small intestine and then into the large intestine.The stomach and esophagus are part of the upper digestive system.See the following PDQ summaries for more information about stomach cancer:Stomach (Gastric) Cancer ScreeningGastric Cancer Treatment In the United States, the number of new cases of stomach cancer has stayed about the same since 2005. Since 2005, the number of new cases of stomach cancer in the United States has stayed about the same. Men are twice as likely as women to be

  4. Stage Information for Cervical Cancer

    Cervical carcinoma has its origins at the squamous-columnar junction whether in the endocervical canal or on the portion of the cervix. The precursor lesion is dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN]), which can subsequently become invasive cancer. This process can be quite slow. Longitudinal studies have shown that in untreated patients with in situ cervical cancer, 30% to 70% will develop invasive carcinoma over a period of 10 to 12 years. However, in about 10% of patients, lesions can progress from in situ to invasive in a period of less than 1 year. As it becomes invasive, the tumor breaks through the basement membrane and invades the cervical stroma. Extension of the tumor in the cervix may ultimately manifest as ulceration, exophytic tumor, or extensive infiltration of underlying tissue including bladder or rectum. In addition to local invasion, carcinoma of the cervix can spread via the regional lymphatics or bloodstream.

  5. Oropharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Oropharyngeal cancer is uncommon and typically involves patients in the fifth through seventh decades of life; men are afflicted 3 to 5 times more often than women.[ 1,2,3 ] Similar to other cancers of the head and neck,tobacco and alcohol abuse represent the most significant risk factors for the development of oropharyngeal cancer.[ 3,4 ] (Refer to the PDQ summaries on Hypopharyngeal ...

  6. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

    Selected Vegetables and Sun's Soup are names given to several different mixtures of vegetables and herbs that have been studied as treatments for cancer and other medical conditions, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.[1,2,3,4] The original formulation contained shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes [Berk.] Singer), mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (also known by the Chinese herbal name Bai Hua She She Cao), and barbat skullcap (Scutellaria barbata D. Don, also known by the Chinese herbal name Ban Zhi Lian).[1]A second formulation, specifically named Selected Vegetables (SV), was tested in a phase I/II clinical trial that involved patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (refer to the Human/Clinical Studies section of this summary for more information).[2] SV, which is a freeze-dried vegetable and herb product, is marketed in the United States as a dietary supplement under the names Freeze-dried SV or DSV.[3]A third formulation, called Frozen

  7. Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

  8. Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Primary CNS Lymphoma

    Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.) Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is defined as lymphoma limited to ...

  9. Gonzalez Regimen (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About the Gonzalez Regimen

    What is the Gonzalez regimen?The Gonzalez regimen is a complex treatment plan based on the role of enzymes, vitamins, minerals, and other dietary factors. The developer of the regimen, Dr. Nicholas Gonzalez, promotes it as a treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. Supporters of the Gonzalez regimen say it fights cancer in these ways:Helping the body get rid of cancer-causing toxins taken in from the environment and processed foods.Balancing the part of the nervous system that controls automatic body functions such as heartbeat, blood pressure, digestion, and breathing.Keeping the immune system healthy.Some key parts of the regimen include the following:Taking a freeze-dried pancreatic enzyme that is made from pigs. This is said to be the main cancer-fighter in the regimen.Taking a large number of nutritional supplements, including magnesium citrate, papaya, vitamins, and other minerals.Eating a special diet of mainly organic foods.Taking coffee enemas twice a day. What is the

  10. PC-SPES (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About PC-SPES

    What is PC-SPES? PC-SPES is a mixture of herbs that was sold as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment for people with prostate cancer. The mixture contains these 8 herbs: Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis)Chrysanthemum flowers (Dendranthema morifolium)Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum)Isatis (Isatis indigotica)Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra or Glycyrrhiza uralensis)Ginseng (Panax ginseng or Panax pseudoginseng var. notoginseng)Rabdosia rubescens (Isodon rubescens)Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens)PC-SPES was taken off the market because some batches were found to contain prescription medicines in addition to the herbs. Clinical trials of PC-SPES that were underway were stopped. There are products being sold now as substitutes for PC-SPES, but they are not the same mixture. Since the only company licensed to make PC-SPES is no longer in business, PC-SPES is not legally available in the United States. What is the history of the discovery and use of PC-SPES as a

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