Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062875-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening
Important It is possible that the main title of the report Lynch Syndromes is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...
Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Green Tea
OverviewThis section contains the following key information:All tea originates from the Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze plant, and the methods by which the leaves are processed determine the type of tea produced. For green tea, the leaves are steamed and dried.Some research suggests that green tea may have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease and against various forms of cancer, including prostate cancer.Catechins are polyphenol compounds in tea that are associated with many of tea's proposed health benefits.Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in tea, acts as an androgen antagonist and can suppress prostate cancer cell proliferation, suppress production of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by prostate cancer cells, and increase prostate cancer cell death in vitro.Results from one in vitro study showed that prostate cancer cells were less susceptible to radiation -induced apoptosis when exposed to EGCG 30 minutes
Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 21 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General Information About Small Intestine CancerUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Essiac/Flor Essence (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About Essiac and Flor Essence
What are Essiac and Flor Essence?Essiac and Flor Essence are herbal tea mixtures that have been used as anticancer treatments. They have been used to treat other health conditions also, including diabetes, AIDS, and gastrointestinal diseases. Essiac is reported to contain 4 herbs:Burdock root.Indian rhubarb root.Sheep sorrel.Slippery elm (the inner bark).Flor Essence is reported to contain the same 4 herbs found in Essiac plus these 4 other herbs: Watercress.Blessed thistle.Red clover.Kelp.Different batches of these mixtures may contain different ingredients or amounts and the effects may not always be the same. Essiac and Flor Essence are sold worldwide as health tonics or herbal dietary supplements. One company sells Flor Essence and several companies make and sell mixtures called Essiac. This summary refers to the trademarked (brand name) mixtures only. What is the history of the discovery and use of Essiac and Flor Essence as complementary or alternative treatments for cancer? A
Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (09 / 05 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Overview
Some survivors of cancer experience trauma -related symptoms similar to symptoms experienced by people who have survived highly stressful situations, such as military combat, natural disasters, violent personal attack (such as rape), or other life-threatening events. This group of symptoms is called post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and includes avoiding situations related to the trauma, continuously thinking of the trauma, and being overexcited. People with histories of cancer are considered to be at risk for PTSD. The physical and mental shock of having a life-threatening disease, of receiving treatment for cancer, and living with repeated threats to one's body and life are traumatic experiences for many cancer patients.
Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Respiratory System
Lung late effects are more likely to occur after treatment for certain childhood cancers. Treatment for these and other childhood cancers may cause lung late effects: Hodgkin lymphoma.Wilms tumor.Cancers treated with total-body irradiation (TBI) or certain chemotherapy drugs before a stem cell transplant.Certain chemotherapy drugs and radiation to the lungs increase the risk of lung late effects. The risk of health problems that affect the lungs increases after treatment with the following: Surgery to remove all or part of the lung.Certain chemotherapy drugs, such as bleomycin, busulfan, lomustine, dactinomycin, or doxorubicin.Radiation therapy to the chest.Total-body irradiation (TBI) or certain chemotherapy drugs before a stem cell transplant.The following types of treatment are most likely to cause late effects:Chemotherapy drugs that are more likely to damage the lung.Higher doses of radiation.Radiation to a large part of the lung or the whole lung.Radiation that is not given in
Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Small Intestine Cancer
Tests and procedures to stage small intestine cancer are usually done at the same time as diagnosis. Staging is used to find out how far the cancer has spread, but treatment decisions are not based on stage. See the General Information section for a description of tests and procedures used to detect, diagnose, and stage small intestine cancer.There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same
Laetrile/Amygdalin (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Adverse Effects
The side effects associated with laetrile treatment mirror the symptoms of cyanide poisoning. Cyanide is a neurotoxin that can cause nausea and vomiting, headache, Reviewed in  dizziness, Reviewed in cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin due to oxygen-deprived hemoglobin in the blood), liver damage,[4,5]hypotension (abnormally low blood pressure), Reviewed in [1,7]ptosis (droopy upper eyelid),[8,9]ataxic neuropathies (difficulty walking due to damaged nerves), fever, Reviewed in  mental confusion, coma, and death. Reviewed in [6,11,12]Oral laetrile causes more severe side effects than injected laetrile. These side effects can be potentiated (increased) by the concurrent administration of raw almonds or crushed fruit pits, by eating fruits and vegetables that contain beta-glucosidase (e.g., celery, peaches, bean sprouts, carrots),[5,13,14] Reviewed in [3,15] or by taking high doses of vitamin C.[5,16] Reviewed in References: Howard-Ruben J, Miller NJ: