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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 22 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.

  2. Laetrile/Amygdalin (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Evaluation of CAM Approaches

    It is important that the same rigorous scientific evaluation used to assess conventional approaches be used to evaluate CAM therapies. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) are sponsoring a number of clinical trials (research studies) at medical centers to evaluate CAM therapies for cancer. Conventional approaches to cancer treatment have generally been studied for safety and effectiveness through a rigorous scientific process that includes clinical trials with large numbers of patients. Less is known about the safety and effectiveness of complementary and alternative methods. Few CAM therapies have undergone rigorous evaluation. A small number of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that may help patients feel better and recover faster. One example is acupuncture. According to a panel of

  3. Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  4. Vulvar Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN)Treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) may include the following:Removal of single lesions or wide local excision.Laser surgery.Ultrasound surgical aspiration.Skinning vulvectomy with or without a skin graft.Biologic therapy with topical imiquimod.Stage I Vulvar CancerTreatment of stage I vulvar cancer may include the following:Wide local excision for lesions that are less than 1 millimeter deep..Radical local excision and removal of nearby lymph nodes.Radical local excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy. If cancer is found in the sentinel lymph node, nearby lymph nodes are also removed.Radiation therapy for patients who cannot have surgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of

  5. Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process

  6. Insulinoma

    Curative surgical excision, by open laparotomy or laparoscopy, is the treatment of choice when possible. The open surgical approach is used if the tumor is suspected to be malignant, since en bloc lymphadenectomy is performed for malignant tumors without distant metastases. Intraoperative ultrasound aids the localization of tumor extent and the relationship to other anatomic structures.[1]Standard treatment options:Single small lesion in head or tail of pancreas:[1,2,3,4]Enucleation, if feasible. Large lesion in the head of the pancreas that is not amenable to enucleation:[1,2,3,4]Pancreaticoduodenectomy.Single large lesion in body/tail:[1,2,3,4]Distal pancreatectomy.Multiple lesions: occur in 10%, often in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1):[1,2,3,4]Distal pancreatectomy with enucleation of tumors in the head of the pancreas.Metastatic lesions: lymph nodes or distant sites:[5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12]Resect when possible.Consider radiofrequency or

  7. Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000304747-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Levels of Evidence: Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies

  8. Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Testicular Cancer

    Note: This Stage Information section has been updated to include information from the 7th edition (2010) of the American Joint Committee on Cancer's AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. The PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is responsible for maintaining this summary, is currently reviewing the new staging categories to determine whether additional changes need to be made to other parts of the summary. Any necessary changes will be made as soon as possible. Definitions of TNMThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has designated staging by TNM classification to define testicular cancer.[1]Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a,b,ca Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Testis. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 469-78.b The extent of primary tumor is usually classified after radical orchiectomy, and for this reason, apathologic stage is assigned.c Except for pTis and pT4, extent of

  9. Grief, Bereavement, and Coping With Loss (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Factors that Affect Complicated Grief

    Researchers study grief reactions to try to find out what might increase the chance that complicated grief will occur.Studies have looked at how the following factors affect the grief response:Whether the death is expected or unexpected. It may seem that any sudden, unexpected loss might lead to more difficult grief. However, studies have found that bereaved people with high self-esteem and/or a feeling that they have control over life are likely to have a normal grief reaction even after an unexpected loss. Bereaved people with low self-esteem and/or a sense that life cannot be controlled are more likely to have complicated grief after an unexpected loss. This includes more depression and physical problems. The personality of the bereaved.Studies have found that people with certain personality traits are more likely to have long-lasting depression after a loss. These include people who are very dependent on the loved one (such as a spouse), and people who deal with distress by

  10. Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Nutrition and Cancer Care

    National Cancer InstituteFor information from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) about nutrition and cancer treatment, see Coping with Cancer: Managing Physical Effects.For information from NCI about nutrition and cancer prevention, see the following PDQ summaries:Cancer Prevention OverviewBreast Cancer PreventionColorectal Cancer PreventionEsophageal Cancer PreventionLung Cancer PreventionStomach (Gastric) Cancer PreventionOrganizationsFor general nutrition information and other resources, see the following:United States Department of Agriculturewww.choosemyplate.govDietary Guidelines for 2010American Botanical Council 800-373-7105 abc.herbalgram.orgAmerican Cancer Society 800-227-2345 www.cancer.orgAmerican Dietetic Association 800-877-1600 www.eatright.orgAmerican Institute for Cancer Research 800-843-8114www.aicr.orgAmerican Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 800-727-4567www.nutritioncare.orgNational Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) 888-644-6226

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