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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with primary CNS lymphoma. Different types of treatment are available for patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Surgery is not used to treat primary CNS lymphoma.Three standard treatments are used:Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types

  2. Cancer Genetics Overview (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  3. Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Questions and Answers About Selenium

    What is soy?The soybean plant has been grown in Asia for food since ancient times. Soy first arrived in Europe and North America in the 18th century. The soybean can be processed into a wide variety of products including soy milk, miso, tofu, soy flour, and oil. Soy foods contain many phytochemicals that may have health benefits. Isoflavones are the most widely researched compounds in soy. Major isoflavones in the soybean include genistein (which may be the most bioactive isoflavone), daidzein, and glycitein. Isoflavones protect the soybean plant from stress and have antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal actions.Isoflavones are phytoestrogens (estrogen -like substances found in plants) that attach to estrogen receptors in cells. Genistein has been shown to affect many pathways in prostate cancer cells involved in the growth and spread of cancer. How is soy administered or consumed? Soy may be consumed in the diet or taken in dietary supplements. Have any preclinical (laboratory

  4. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Standard treatment options: Surgery.Radiation therapy.Chemotherapy.Surgery Tracheostomy is frequently necessary. If the disease is confined to the local area, which is rare, total thyroidectomy is warranted to reduce symptoms caused by the tumor mass.[1,2]Radiation TherapyExternal-beam radiation therapy may be used in patients who are not surgical candidates or whose tumor cannot be surgically excised. Chemotherapy Anaplastic thyroid cancer is not responsive to I131 therapy; treatment with individual anticancer drugs has been reported to produce partial remissions in some patients. Approximately 30% of patients achieve a partial remission with doxorubicin.[3] The combination of doxorubicin plus cisplatin appears to be more active than doxorubicin alone and has been reported to produce more complete responses.[4]Treatment options under clinical evaluation:The combination of chemotherapy plus radiation therapy in patients following complete resection may provide prolonged survival but

  5. Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Lung Cancer Screening

    Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer.Some screening tests are used because they have been shown to be helpful both in finding cancers early and decreasing the chance of dying from these cancers. Other tests are used because they have been shown to find cancer in some people; however, it has not been proven in clinical trials that use of these tests will decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, finding and treating the disease at an early stage may result in a better chance of recovery. Clinical trials that study cancer screening methods are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site. Three screening tests have been

  6. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular and Molecular Classification of Melanoma

    Following is a list of clinicopathologic cellular subtypes of malignant melanoma. These should be considered descriptive terms of historic interest only as they do not have independent prognostic or therapeutic significance. Superficial spreading.Nodular.Lentigo maligna.Acral lentiginous (palmar/plantar and subungual).Miscellaneous unusual types: Mucosal lentiginous (oral and genital).Desmoplastic.Verrucous. Identification of activating mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway has led to the definition of molecular subtypes of melanoma and provided potential drug targets.BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) gene, first reported in 2002, are the most frequent mutation in cutaneous melanoma. Approximately 40% to 60% of malignant melanomas harbor a single nucleotide transversion. The majority have a mutation that results in a substitution from valine to glutamic acid at position 600 BRAF (V600E); less frequent mutations include valine 600 to lysine or

  7. Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062707-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment

  8. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (09 / 08 / 2014)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Treatment Option OverviewAdded text about a European trial of adults with completely resected soft tissue sarcoma who were randomly assigned to observation or adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin, using a relatively low dose of ifosfamide. Adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with improved event-free survival or overall survival; when the authors merged their patients with previously published series, they concluded that the results suggested a benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy (cited Woll et al. as reference 30 and level of evidence 1iiA).Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Childhood Soft Tissue SarcomaAdded text to state that expression and genomic index prognostic signatures have been studied in synovial sarcoma; more complex genomic profiles, with greater rearrangement of the

  9. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Adverse Effects

    Serious adverse effects of acupuncture are rare. Reported accidents and infections appear to be related to violations of sterile procedure, negligence of the practitioner, or both.[1,2] A systematic review of case reports on the safety of acupuncture, involving 98 papers published in the English language from 22 countries during the period from 1965 to 1999, found only 202 incidents. The number of incidents appeared to decline as training standards and licensure requirements were enhanced. Among the 118 (60%) reported incidents involving infection, 94 (80%) involved hepatitis, occurring mainly in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Very few hepatitis or other infections associated with acupuncture have been reported since 1988, when widespread use of disposable needles was introduced and national certification requirements for clean-needle techniques were developed and enforced as an acupuncture licensure requirement.[3,4] Because cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy or

  10. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

    Current therapy is of unclear benefit for patients with Stage IVB disease. No established anticancer drugs can be considered of proven clinical benefit, although patients are often treated with regimens used to treat cervical cancer. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Cervical Cancer Treatment for more information.) Concurrent chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil or cisplatin-based therapy and radiation is sometimes advocated, and, again, this is based solely on extrapolation from cervical cancer management strategies.[1,2,3] Experience is limited to small case series and the incremental impact on survival and local control is not well defined.[Level of evidence 3iiiDiv] Considering the rarity of these patients, they should be considered candidates for clinical trials to improve survival or local control. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Squamous Cell CarcinomaStandard treatment options:Radiation (for palliation of symptoms) with or without

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