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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Overview

    Cannabis,also known as marijuana,is a plant grown in many parts of the world (see Question 1). The use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back to ancient times (see Question 3). By federal law,possessing Cannabis is illegal in the United States (see Question 1). In the United States,Cannabis is a controlled substance that requires special licensing for its use (see Question 1 and ...

  2. Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Rectal Cancer

    Stage I tumors extend beneath the mucosa into the submucosa (T1) or into, but not through, the bowel muscle wall (T2). Because of its localized nature at presentation, stage I has a high cure rate. Treatment options:Wide surgical resection and anastomosis when an adequate low-anterior resection (LAR) can be performed with sufficient distal rectum to allow a conventional anastomosis or coloanal anastomosis.Wide surgical resection with abdominoperineal resection (APR) for lesions too distal to permit LAR.Local transanal or other resection [1,2] with or without perioperative external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) plus fluorouracil (5-FU).There are three potential options for surgical resection in stage I rectal cancer: local excision, LAR, and APR. Local excision should be restricted to tumors confined to the rectal wall and that do not, on rectal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, involve the full thickness of the rectum (i.e., not a T3 tumor). The ideal candidate for local

  3. Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Childhood AML and Other Myeloid Malignancies

    Despite second remission induction in over one-half of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with drugs similar to drugs used in initial induction therapy, the prognosis for a child with recurrent or progressive AML is generally poor.[1,2] Approximately 50% to 60% of relapses occur within the first year following diagnosis, with most relapses occurring by 4 years from diagnosis.[1] The vast majority of relapses occur in the bone marrow, with central nervous system (CNS) relapse being very uncommon.[1] Length of first remission is an important factor affecting the ability to attain a second remission; children with a first remission of less than 1 year have substantially lower rates of remission than children whose first remission is greater than 1 year (50%–60% vs. 70%–90%, respectively).[2,3,4] Survival for children with shorter first remissions is also substantially lower (approximately 10%) than that for children with first remissions exceeding 1 year

  4. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062770-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy

  5. Treatment Option Overview for Adult NHL

    Treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) depends on the histologic type and stage. Many of the improvements in survival have been made using clinical trials (experimental therapy) that have attempted to improve on the best available accepted therapy (conventional or standard therapy). In asymptomatic patients with indolent forms of advanced NHL, treatment may be deferred until the patient becomes symptomatic as the disease progresses. When treatment is deferred, the clinical course of patients with indolent NHL varies; frequent and careful observation is required so that effective treatment can be initiated when the clinical course of the disease accelerates. Some patients have a prolonged indolent course, but others have disease that rapidly evolves into more aggressive types of NHL that require immediate treatment.Radiation techniques differ somewhat from those used in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma. The dose of radiation therapy usually varies from 25 Gy to 50 Gy and is

  6. Laetrile/Amygdalin (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of the Evidence for Laetrile / Amygdalin

    To assist readers in evaluating the results of human studies of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments for cancer, the strength of the evidence (i.e., the levels of evidence) associated with each type of treatment is provided whenever possible. To qualify for a level of evidence analysis, a study must:Be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.Report on a therapeutic outcome or outcomes, such as tumor response, improvement in survival, or measured improvement in quality of life.Describe clinical findings in sufficient detail that a meaningful evaluation can be made.Separate levels of evidence scores are assigned to qualifying human studies on the basis of statistical strength of the study design and scientific strength of the treatment outcomes (i.e., endpoints) measured. The resulting two scores are then combined to produce an overall score. A table showing the levels of evidence scores for qualifying human studies cited in this summary is

  7. Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  8. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 08 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Background Information About Childhood CraniopharyngiomaAdded Zacharia et al. as reference 8.Treatment Options for Newly Diagnosed Childhood CraniopharyngiomaAdded Clark et al. as reference 8.Revised text to state that the surgical procedure is followed by radiation therapy, with a 5-year progression-free survival rate of about 70% to 90% and 10-year overall survival rates higher than 90% (cited Merchant et al. as reference 12 and level of evidence 3iDiii). Also added text to state that transient cyst enlargement may be noted soon after radiation therapy but generally resolves without further intervention (cited Shi et al. as reference 14 and level of evidence 3iDiv).Added Kickingereder et al. as reference 24 and level of evidence 2A.Treatment Options for Recurrent Childhood

  9. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Laboratory / Animal / Preclinical Studies

    Hydrazine compounds have been studied both as potential anticancer drugs and as cancer-causing agents. Early studies of hydrazines, including hydrazine sulfate, were conducted to determine whether these compounds could cause cancer in healthy laboratory animals.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9] Reviewed in [10,11] Substantial increases in tumor incidence were observed in most studies that used rats, mice, or hamsters.[1,2,3,4,5,7,8,9] Hydrazine administration was associated with increases in lung, liver, and breast tumors in rats,[2,5] increases in lung and liver tumors in mice,[1,2,3,4,8] and increases in liver tumors in hamsters.[7,9] In one study, hydrazine sulfate increased the incidence of lung tumors in both males and females of the mouse strain C3H, but reduced the incidence of breast adenocarcinomas in C3H females.[3]Animal studies of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for cancer have investigated this compound as a single agent and in combination with established chemotherapy

  10. Oral Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

    Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Oral Cancer Screening; Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment; and Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit are also available. Who is at Risk? People who use tobacco in any of the commonly available forms (cigarettes,cigars,pipes,and smokeless tobacco) or have high alcohol intake are at elevated risk of oral cancer; and they are at particularly high risk ...

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