Delirium (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Assessment, Diagnosis, and Monitoring
The diagnosis of delirium should be considered for any patient with cancer demonstrating an acute onset of agitation or uncooperative behavior, personality change, impaired cognitive functioning, altered attention span, fluctuating level of consciousness, or uncharacteristic anxiety or depression. However, the diagnoses of delirium and cognitive impairment are frequently missed and poorly documented.[1,2,3,4,5]Medical and nursing staff, as well as family members, may attribute a functional cause to some of the early, prodromal, and more subtle signs of delirium such as increased anxiety, restlessness, and emotional lability. Failure to recognize delirium is particularly likely if the patient is encountered in a transient lucid phase, which can commonly occur as part of the fluctuating nature of delirium. Delirium is most frequently misdiagnosed as depression or dementia.[7,8,9,10] The hypoactive subtype is considered especially likely to be misdiagnosed as
Pediatric Supportive Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - About PDQ
PDQ IS A COMPREHENSIVE CANCER DATABASE AVAILABLE ON NCI'S WEB SITE. PDQ is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ is available online at NCI's Web site. PDQ is provided as a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health,the federal government's focal point for biomedical research. ...
Esophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit
Tobacco,Alcohol,and Dietary Factors In the United States,squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is strongly associated with tobacco and alcohol abuse. The risk declines with smoking cessation. In China,esophageal cancer is associated with deficiencies of nutrients such as retinol,riboflavin,alpha-carotene and beta-carotene,alpha-tocopherol,ascorbate,and zinc,and with exposure to ...
Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Risk Groups for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Once childhood ALL has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if the cancer has spread to the brain, spinal cord, testicles, or to other parts of the body.The following tests and procedures may be used to find out if the cancer has spread:Lumbar puncture: A procedure used to collect cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal column. This is done by placing a needle into the spinal column. This procedure is also called an LP or spinal tap.Chest x-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body. The chest x-ray is done to see if leukemia cells are forming a mass in the middle of the chest.Testicularbiopsy: The removal of cells or tissues from the testicles so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. This procedure is done only if there seems to be anything unusual about the testicles during the physical exam.There are
Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - About PDQ
PDQ is a comprehensive cancer database available on NCI's Web site.PDQ is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ is available online at NCI's Web site. PDQ is provided as a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health, the federal government's focal point for biomedical research.PDQ contains cancer information summaries.The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries are available in two versions. The health professional versions provide detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions provide current and accurate cancer information. Images in the PDQ summaries are used with permission of the author(s), artist, and/or publisher
Depression (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment of Depression
The decision to treat depression depends on how long it has lasted and how much it affects your life.If you cannot adjust to the cancer diagnosis after a long time and you have lost interest in your usual activities, you may have depression that needs to be treated. Treatment of depression may include medicines, talk therapy, or both.Treatment of major depression usually includes medicine.It's important to use antidepressants only under the care of a doctor.Antidepressants help relieve depression and its symptoms. When you are taking antidepressants, it's important that they are used under the care of a doctor. You may be treated with a number of medicines during your cancer care. Some anticancer medicines may not mix safely with certain antidepressants or with certain foods, herbals, or nutritional supplements. It's important to tell your healthcare providers about all the medicines, herbals, and nutritional supplements you are taking, including medicines used as patches on the skin.
Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of the Evidence for Newcastle Disease Virus
In view of the evidence accumulated to date, no conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of using Newcastle disease virus in the treatment of cancer. Most reported clinical studies have involved few patients, and historical control subjects rather than actual control groups have often been used for outcome comparisons. Poor descriptions of study design and incomplete reporting of clinical data have hindered evaluation of many of the reported findings. However, while most studies are small and lack adequate controls, the number of studies suggesting a potential clinical value warrants further attention.Separate levels of evidence scores are assigned to qualifying human studies on the basis of statistical strength of the study design and scientific strength of the treatment outcomes (i.e., endpoints) measured. The resulting two scores are then combined to produce an overall score. For additional information about levels of evidence analysis, refer to Levels of Evidence for Human
Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of Infantile Choriocarcinoma of the Liver
Choriocarcinoma of the liver is a very rare tumor that appears to originate in the placenta during gestation and presents with a liver mass in the first few months of life. Metastasis from placenta to maternal tissues occurs in many cases,necessitating beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) testing of the mother. Infants are often anemic and can be unstable at presentation due to ...
To Learn More about Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid / Rhabdoid Tumor and Other Childhood Brain Tumors
For more information about childhood central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and other childhood brain tumors, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ Brain TumorsPediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC)For more childhood cancer information and other general cancer resources, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerChildhood CancersCureSearch for Children's CancerLate Effects of Treatment for Childhood CancerAdolescents and Young Adults with CancerYoung People with Cancer: A Handbook for ParentsCare for Children and Adolescents with CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation for Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates
Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Primary CNS Lymphoma
Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.) Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is defined as lymphoma limited to ...