Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Colon Cancer
After colon cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the colon or to other parts of the body.The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the colon or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the abdomen or chest, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a
Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors.Different types of treatments are available for patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Three types of standard treatment are used:Radiation therapyRadiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy
Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Breast Cancer
Treatment of recurrent breast cancer (cancer that has come back after treatment) in the breast or chest wall may include the following:Surgery (modified radical mastectomy), radiation therapy, or both.Chemotherapy or hormone therapy.Antibody-drug conjugate therapy with ado-trastuzumab emtansine.A clinical trial of trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent breast cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood Craniopharyngioma
The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the brain or to other parts of the body is called staging. There is no standard system for staging childhood craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngioma is described as newly diagnosed disease or recurrent disease.The results of the tests and procedures done to diagnose craniopharyngioma are used to help make decisions about treatment.
Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Epidemic Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment
Treatment may result:In a disappearance or reduction in size of specific skin lesions, thereby alleviating the discomfort associated with the chronic edema and ulcerations that often accompany multiple skin tumors seen on the lower extremities.In control of symptoms associated with mucosal or visceral lesions.No data are available, however, to show that treatment improves survival. In addition to antitumor treatment, essential components of an optimal Kaposi sarcoma (KS) treatment strategy include highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), prophylaxis for opportunistic infections, and rapid recognition and treatment of intercurrent infections.Most good-risk patients, as defined by the AIDS Clinical Trials Group, show tumor regression with HAART alone. Poor-risk patients usually require a combination of HAART and chemotherapy with discontinuation of the chemotherapy after disappearance of the skin lesion.Local modalitiesSmall localized lesions of KS may be
Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Small Intestine Cancer
General Information About Small Intestine Cancer
Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (03 / 29 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Pediatric GCT BiologyAdded Poynter et al. as reference 3.Treatment of Recurrent Childhood Malignant GCTsAdded a link to the Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation section of the PDQ summary on Childhood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for more information about transplantation.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Parathyroid Cancer
Approximately 40% to 60% of patients experience a postsurgical recurrence, typically between 2 to 5 years after the initial resection.[1,2] Because it is difficult to establish a histologic diagnosis of parathyroid cancer at the time of initial surgery, the appearance of recurrent or metastatic tumor can be the first sign of malignancy.Because these tumors are slow-growing, repeated resection of local recurrences and/or distant metastases can result in significant palliation.[4,5,6,7,8] Pulmonary metastases as well as bone metastases should be resected, if possible, to decrease the magnitude of the hypercalcemia.[7,9] Occasionally, long-term salvage is achieved in this group of patients with aggressive surgical treatment. The major morbidity of recurrent or metastatic parathyroid cancer results from severe hypercalcemia, which can be difficult to control. For patients not fit for surgery, treatment with bisphosphonates, plicamycin, calcitonin, and gallium pamidronate may
Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Standard treatment options:High-dose radiation therapy to the primary tumor site and prophylactic radiation therapy to the nodal drainage.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I nasopharyngeal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.References: Xiao WW, Han F, Lu TX, et al.: Treatment outcomes after radiotherapy alone for patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74 (4): 1070-6, 2009.
Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Esophageal Cancer
Standard treatment options: Chemoradiation with subsequent surgery.Surgery.Treatment options under clinical evaluation:Clinical trials.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I esophageal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.