Oropharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Oropharyngeal Cancer
Standard treatment options: Surgical resection if radiation therapy fails and if technically feasible.Radiation therapy when surgery fails if not previously given in curative doses that preclude further treatment. Surgical salvage when surgery fails and if technically feasible.Treatment options under clinical evaluation: Clinical trials evaluating the use of chemotherapy should be considered.[3,4,5,6]Clinical trials evaluating the use of hyperthermia and radiation therapy.Posttreatment follow-up:These patients should have a careful head and neck examination to look for recurrence monthly for the first posttreatment year, every 2 months for the second year, every 3 months for the third year, and every 6 months thereafter. If the patient has metastatic disease or local recurrence that is no longer amenable to surgery or radiation, chemotherapy should be considered.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now
Antineoplastons (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Laboratory / Animal / Preclinical Studies
In vitro studies using a variety of human cell lines have been used to assess the effectiveness of antineoplastons as antineoplastic agents. Burzynski states that antineoplaston A is species-specific because it had no therapeutic effect when the human preparation was tested on animal tumor systems. Although this finding limits the usefulness of animal model testing, the developer has suggested that a marked therapeutic effect was produced in a xenograft bearing human tumor tissue. This claim is made only for antineoplaston A. Other formulations of antineoplastons have not been tested in animal models.Japanese scientists have tested antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 in vitro for cell growth inhibition and progression in several human hepatocellular cell lines.[2,3] Tests were performed in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations varying from 0.5 to 8 µg/mL for A10 and AS2-1, and growth inhibition was generally observed at 6 to 8 µg/mL. This dose level is considered excessively
Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Colon Cancer
Histologic types of colon cancer include the following:Adenocarcinoma (most colon cancers).Mucinous (colloid) adenocarcinoma.Signet ring adenocarcinoma.Scirrhous tumors.Neuroendocrine. Tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation typically have a poorer prognosis than pure adenocarcinoma variants.References: Saclarides TJ, Szeluga D, Staren ED: Neuroendocrine cancers of the colon and rectum. Results of a ten-year experience. Dis Colon Rectum 37 (7): 635-42, 1994.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
The management of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is a multidisciplinary effort involving close collaboration between pathologists, medical oncologists, surgeons, and imaging experts.Treatment may involve surgery and/or the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) depending on the extent of disease and tumor sensitivity to TKI. Although recurrence is common for patients with high-risk tumors (see Table1), complete resection of localized tumors may be associated with long-term disease-free survival (DFS).[Level of evidence: 3iiiDii] Standard chemotherapy is not used because of the insensitivity of GIST to chemotherapeutic agents.[3,4,5,6] Radiation therapy rarely has a role in the management of patients with GIST; it may occasionally be used for pain control in patients with limited, bulky hepatic metastases or with a single, large metastatic lesion fixed to the abdominal or pelvic wall.[Level of evidence: 2Div] Whether tumors 2 cm or smaller with a
Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
Treatment of recurrent ovarian epithelial cancer may include the following:Chemotherapy using one or more anticancer drugs, with or without surgery.A clinical trial of surgery.A clinical trial of targeted therapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent ovarian epithelial cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Vaginal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage 0 Anal Cancer
Stage 0 anal cancer is carcinoma in situ. Rarely diagnosed, it is a very early cancer that has not spread below the limiting membrane of the first layer of anal tissue.Standard treatment options:Surgical resection is used for treatment of lesions of the perianal area not involving the anal sphincter (approach depends on the location of the lesion in the anal canal). Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 anal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Testicular Cancer Treatment and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. Benefits Based on fair evidence,screening for testicular cancer would not result in an appreciable decrease in mortality,in part because therapy at each stage is so effective. Magnitude of Effect: Fair evidence of no reduction in mortality. Study ...
Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed AML
The general principles of therapy for children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are discussed below, followed by a more specific discussion of the treatment of children with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and Down syndrome. Overall survival (OS) rates have improved over the past three decades for children with AML, with 5-year survival rates now in the 55% to 65% range.[1,2,3,4,5] Overall remission-induction rates are approximately 85% to 90%, and event-free survival (EFS) rates from the time of diagnosis are in the 45% to 55% range.[2,3,4,5] There is, however, a wide range in outcome for different biological subtypes of AML (refer to the Cytogenetic Evaluation and Molecular Abnormalities section of this summary for more information); after taking specific biological factors of their leukemia into account, the predicted outcome for any individual patient may be much better or much worse than the overall outcome for the general population of children with
Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)
Treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) may include the following:Breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy with or without tamoxifen.Total mastectomy with or without tamoxifen.Breast-conserving surgery without radiation therapy.Clinical trials testing breast-conserving surgery and tamoxifen with or without radiation therapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with ductal breast carcinoma in situ. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.