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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    The two-drug regimen of daunorubicin given in conjunction with cytarabine will result in a complete response rate of approximately 65%. Some physicians opt to add a third drug, thioguanine, to this regimen, although little evidence is available to conclude that this three-drug regimen is better therapy. One study suggested that the addition of etoposide during induction therapy may improve response duration.[1] The choice of anthracycline and the dose-intensity of anthracycline may influence the survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Idarubicin appeared to be more effective than daunorubicin, particularly in younger adults, although the doses of idarubicin and daunorubicin may not have been equivalent.[2,3,4,5] No significant survival difference between daunorubicin and mitoxantrone has been reported.[6] In patients aged 60 years and younger, outcomes for those receiving daunorubicin (90 mg/m2 /dose, total induction dosing at 270 mg/m2) were superior to

  2. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Urethral Cancer

    Prognosis and treatment decisions are both determined by:[1]The anatomical location of the primary tumor.The size of the tumor.The stage of the cancer.The depth of invasion of the tumor.The histology of the primary tumor is of less importance in estimating response to therapy and survival.[2] Endoscopic examination, urethrography, and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in determining the local extent of the tumor.[3,4]Distal Urethral CancerThese lesions are often superficial. Female: Lesions of the distal third of the urethra.Male: Anterior, or penile, portion of the urethra, including the meatus and pendulous urethra.Proximal Urethral CancerThese lesions are often deeply invasive. Female: Lesions not clearly limited to the distal third of the urethra.Male: Bulbomembranous and prostatic urethra.Urethral Cancer Associated with Invasive Bladder CancerApproximately 5% to 10% of men with cystectomy for bladder cancer may have or may develop urethral cancer distal to the urogenital

  3. Treatment Options by Stage

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Carcinoma in Situ (Stage 0)Treatment of carcinoma in situ (stage 0) may include the following:Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP).Laser surgery.Conization.Cryosurgery.Total hysterectomy for women who cannot or no longer want to have children.Internal radiation therapy for women who cannot have surgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 cervical cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Stage IA Cervical CancerTreatment of stage IA cervical cancer

  4. Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000257990-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment

  5. Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Risk Factors and Etiologies

    Not all cancer patients will experience nausea, vomiting (emesis), or both. The most common causes are emetogenic chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or brain. Several patient characteristics have also been identified. These include incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting (N&V) during past courses of chemotherapy, history of chronic alcohol use, age, and gender. Patients with poor control of N&V during prior chemotherapy cycles are likely to experience N&V in subsequent cycles. N&V is less likely in patients with a history of chronic high intake of alcohol [1] and more likely in women [2,3] and in patients younger than 50 years.[2]Other possible causes include fluid and electrolyte imbalances such as hypercalcemia, volume depletion, or water intoxication; tumor invasion or growth in the GI tract, liver, or central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa; constipation; certain drugs such as opioids; infection or septicemia;

  6. Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062853-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Prostate Cancer Prevention

  7. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Stage 0 (Papillary Carcinoma and Carcinoma in Situ)Treatment of stage 0 may include the following:Transurethral resection with fulguration.Transurethral resection with fulguration followed by intravesical biologic therapy or chemotherapy.Segmental cystectomy.Radical cystectomy.A clinical trial of photodynamic therapy.A clinical trial of biologic therapy.A clinical trial of chemoprevention therapy given after treatment so the condition will not recur (come back).Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 bladder cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of

  8. Ewing Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

    This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about treatment of Ewing Family of Tumors.

  9. Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000269299-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment

  10. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (06 / 06 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.

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