Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Interventions That are Known to Lower Cancer Risk
An intervention is a treatment or action taken to prevent or treat disease, or improve health in other ways. Many studies are being done to find ways to keep cancer from starting or recurring (coming back).Chemoprevention is being studied in patients who have a high risk of developing cancer.Chemoprevention is the use of substances to lower the risk of cancer, or keep it from recurring. The substances may be natural or made in the laboratory. Some chemopreventive agents are tested in people who are at high risk for a certain type of cancer. The risk may be because of a precancerous condition, family history, or lifestyle factors.Some chemoprevention studies have shown good results. For example, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) such as tamoxifen or raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk. Finasteride and dutasteride have been shown to reduce the risk of prostate cancer.See the following PDQ summaries for more information:Breast
Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Renal Cell Cancer
For more information from the National Cancer Institute about renal cell cancer, see the following:Kidney Cancer Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Kidney CancerDrugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) CancerBiological Therapies for CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: Targeted Therapies (Advances in Targeted Therapies)Targeted Cancer TherapiesAngiogenesis InhibitorsUnderstanding Cancer Series: AngiogenesisGenetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer SyndromesSmoking Home Page (Includes help with quitting)For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates
Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer
After small cell lung cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the chest or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the chest or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. Some of the tests used to diagnose small cell lung cancer are also used to stage the disease. (See the General Information section.) Other tests and procedures that may be used in the staging process include the following:MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain: A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the brain,
Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Gastric Carcinoids
Type I gastric carcinoids smaller than 1 cm are indolent with minimal risk for invasion and can be removed with endoscopic mucosal resection.[1,2,3] Local surgical excision may be performed for rare larger or invasive tumors, but exceptional cases with large multifocal lesions may require gastric resection. Follow-up with yearly endoscopic surveillance and repeated gastroscopy with multiple gastric biopsies is required, and treatment with somatostatin analogs may prevent recurrence.For type II carcinoids, surgery is focused on removing the source of hypergastrinemia, typically by excision of duodenal gastrinomas in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I via duodenotomy with resection of lymph node metastases.[5,6,7] Because of their generally benign course similar to type I tumors, type II tumors can usually be managed with endoscopic resection (particularly for tumors <1 cm) followed by close endoscopic surveillance.[1,3] Liberal surgical excision or gastric
Milk Thistle (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About Milk Thistle
What is milk thistle?Milk thistle is a plant whose fruit and seeds have been used for more than 2,000 years as a treatment for disorders of the liver, bile ducts, and gallbladder. Milk thistle is native to Europe but can also be found in the United States and South America. The medicinal ingredient found in milk thistle is silymarin, an extract of milk thistle seeds. It is an antioxidant that protects against cell damage. Silymarin contains 4 compounds: silybin (the most active), isosilybin, silychristin, and silydianin. Most research has studied silymarin or its major compound silybin, instead of the plant in its whole form.The botanical name for milk thistle is Silybum marianum. Milk thistle is also called holy thistle, Marian thistle, Mary thistle, St. Mary thistle, Our Lady's thistle, wild artichoke, Mariendistel (German), and Chardon-Marie (French). What is the history of the discovery and use of milk thistle as a complementary and alternative treatment for cancer? The ancient
Treatment Options for Primary Refractory / Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children and Adolescents
Treatment of primary refractory or recurrent childhood Hodgkin lymphoma may include the following:Chemotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy, or a combination of these therapies.High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant using the patient's own stem cells. Low-dose radiation therapy also may be given after transplant.High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant using a donor's stem cells.A clinical trial of a new combination of a monoclonal antibody and chemotherapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent/refractory childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
PC-SPES (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview
This complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information summary provides an overview of the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for cancer. The summary includes a brief history of PC-SPES research,the results of clinical trials,and possible adverse effects of PC-SPES. Included in this summary is a discussion of the contamination of PC-SPES and its withdrawal from avenues of distribution. ...
Transitional Care Planning (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062773-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Transitional Care Planning
Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage 0 Gastric Cancer
Standard treatment options:Surgery.Stage 0 is gastric cancer confined to mucosa. Experience in Japan, where stage 0 is diagnosed frequently, indicates that more than 90% of patients treated by gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy will survive beyond 5 years. An American series has confirmed these results.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 gastric cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.References: Green PH, O'Toole KM, Slonim D, et al.: Increasing incidence and excellent survival of patients with early gastric cancer: experience in a United States medical center. Am J Med 85 (5): 658-61, 1988.
Transitional Care Planning (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Screening Components Specific to Biopsychosocial Assessment
Not all facilities or primary care providers have access to health care personnel dedicated to providing initial and ongoing biopsychosocial and functional independence assessments, especially in rural areas. To facilitate development of these approaches in the absence of such personnel, the following components are recommended for identifying patients at risk for problems during transitions.