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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

    This section helps lead the clinician and pathologist through a differential diagnosis for an unknown primary presenting with cervical node metastases. The therapeutic section, however, relates only to squamous carcinoma and assumes that the primary physician has worked with the pathologist as described below to eliminate other possibilities that would require alternative therapies. The pathologist plays a central role in evaluating an occult primary tumor. A thorough evaluation of an adequate specimen through histologic or immunohistochemical techniques, and, when appropriate, electron microscopy (EM) provides guidance for the clinical evaluation that ensues. A critical interaction should exist between the pathologist, oncologist, and primary physician. The complexity of the pathologic evaluation tends to be inversely related to the degree of differentiation of the tumor. For instance, for well or moderately differentiated tumors, the pathologic diagnosis of an epithelial cancer is

  2. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Ciliary Body Melanoma

    Melanoma involving the ciliary body is a rare tumor that carries a poor prognosis. In some cases, diagnosis may be difficult because of similarity to other eye diseases. The differential diagnosis of ciliary body melanoma should be considered in cases of unilateral pigmentary glaucoma and chronic uveitis.[1]Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to evaluate tumor shape, thickness, margins, reflectivity, and local invasion.[2,3] Patients with tumors greater than 7 mm in thickness are at increased risk for metastatic disease and melanoma-related death compared with patients with thinner tumors.[4]Standard treatment options:There are several options for management of ciliary body melanoma. All of them are reported from case series.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] The choice of therapy, however, depends on many factors.Plaque radiation therapy: Local control rates are high, but treatment is associated with a high incidence of secondary cataract.[4,5]External-beam, charged-particle radiation

  3. Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  4. Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Overview

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes a wide variety of therapies, botanicals, nutritional products, and practices. These forms of treatment are used in addition to (complementary) or instead of (alternative) standard treatments. The 2007 National Health Interview Survey reported that about 4 out of 10 adults use a CAM therapy, naming natural products and deep breathing exercises.as the most commonly used treatments.One large survey reported on the use of complementary therapies in cancer survivors. The therapies used most often were prayer and spiritual practice, relaxation, faith and spiritual healing, and nutritional supplements and vitamins. CAM therapies are used often by children with cancer, both in and outside clinical trials. CAM therapies have been used to manage side effects caused by cancer or cancer treatment. This complementary and alternative medicine summary gives a brief description of CAM therapies found in PDQ Cancer Information Summaries or Fact

  5. Astrocytoma

    Important It is possible that the main title of the report Astrocytoma is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...

  6. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Neuroblastoma

    Neuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in nerve tissue of the adrenal gland,neck,chest,or spinal cord. Neuroblastoma often begins in the nerve tissue of the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands,one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper abdomen. The adrenal glands produce important hormones that help control heart rate,blood pressure,blood ...

  7. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of intraocular melanoma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process

  8. Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Nutrition Therapy

    Nutrition Screening and AssessmentNutrition in cancer care embodies prevention of disease, treatment, cure, or supportive palliation. Caution should be exercised when considering alternative or unproven nutritional therapies during all phases of cancer treatment and supportive palliation, as these diets may prove harmful. Patient nutritional status plays an integral role in determining not only risk of developing cancer but also risk of therapy-related toxicity and medical outcomes. Whether the goal of cancer treatment is cure or palliation, early detection of nutritional problems and prompt intervention are essential. The original principles of nutrition care for people diagnosed with cancer were developed in 1979 [1] and are still very relevant today. Proactive nutritional care can prevent or reduce the complications typically associated with the treatment of cancer.[1]Many nutritional problems stem from local effects of the tumor. Tumors in the

  9. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with urethral cancer.Different types of treatments are available for patients with urethral cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Four types of standard treatment are used:SurgerySurgery to remove the cancer is the most common treatment for cancer of the urethra. One of the following types of surgery may be done:Open excision: Removal of the cancer by surgery.Transurethral resection (TUR): Surgery to remove the cancer using a

  10. Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - General CAM Information

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)—also referred to as integrative medicine—includes a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. A therapy is generally called complementary when it is used in addition to conventional treatments; it is often called alternative when it is used instead of conventional treatment. (Conventional treatments are those that are widely accepted and practiced by the mainstream medical community.) Depending on how they are used, some therapies can be considered either complementary or alternative. Complementary and alternative therapies are used in an effort to prevent illness, reduce stress, prevent or reduce side effects and symptoms, or control or cure disease. Unlike conventional treatments for cancer, complementary and alternative therapies are often not covered by insurance companies. Patients should check with their insurance provider to find out about coverage for complementary and alternative therapies. Cancer patients

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