Hypercalcemia (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Symptoms of Hypercalcemia
Certain types of cancer and types of treatment may cause symptoms of hypercalcemia.Some cancer cells cause the kidneys to return calcium to the blood after filtering it, instead of passing the extra calcium out of the body in urine. The kidneys keep making urine as they try to get rid of the extra calcium, and this causes the body to be dehydrated (not enough fluid). Dehydration can lead to the following:Loss of appetite.Nausea.Vomiting.Cancer patients are often too tired and weak to be as active as usual. Being inactive can increase calcium in the blood because bones release calcium when they are not being used. Also, some blood cancers make substances that cause bone to break down and release calcium into the blood.Certain types of biologic therapy used for cancer treatment can also cause hypercalcemia. These therapies include the following:Growth factors.Interleukins.Tumor necrosis factors.Hormone therapy can also increase the amount of calcium in the blood.Different patients may
Communication in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - The Role of Family Caregivers
Family caregivers are partners in communication. Families can help patients make better decisions about their cancer care. Patients and their family members can join together as partners to communicate with the doctor and health care team. When possible,patients should decide how much help they want from family members when making decisions. Communication between family caregivers and the ...
Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Recurrent childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the blood and bone marrow or in other parts of the body.
Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - High-Stage Childhood B-cell NHL Treatment
Patients with high-stage (stage III or stage IV) mature B-lineage non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (Burkitt or Burkitt-like lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) have an 80% to 90% long-term survival.[1,2,3] Unlike mature B-lineage NHL seen in adults, there is no difference in outcome based on histology (Burkitt or Burkitt-like lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) with current therapy in pediatric trials.[1,2,3]Involvement of the bone marrow may lead to confusion as to whether the patient has lymphoma or leukemia. Traditionally, patients with more than 25% marrow blasts are classified as having mature B-cell leukemia, and those with fewer than 25% marrow blasts are classified as having lymphoma. It is not clear whether these arbitrary definitions are biologically distinct, but there is no question that patients with Burkitt leukemia should be treated with protocols designed for Burkitt lymphoma.[1,3]Tumor lysis syndrome is often present at diagnosis or after initiation of
Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer
Small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung. The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs that are found within the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body when breathing in and take out carbon dioxide when breathing out. Each lung has sections called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. The right lung,which is slightly ...
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with melanoma. Different types of treatment are available for patients with melanoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment),and some are being tested in clinical trials. Before starting treatment,patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to ...
Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Overview
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a virus that is of interest because it replicates (makes copies of itself) more quickly in human cancercells than in most normal human cells and because it can kill these host cells (see Question 1). NDV can be used to directly kill cancer cells,or it can be given as a cancer vaccine. Cancer vaccines cause the body’s natural immune system to seek out and ...
Delirium (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Etiology of Delirium
Delirium is often multifactorial, especially in the setting of advanced cancer. General etiologic factors include the following:[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]Indirect central nervous system effects related to systemic complications of cancer such as organ failure (e.g., hepatic or renal failure), metabolic or electrolyte disturbance (e.g., hypoglycemia, hypercalcemia, hyponatremia, or dehydration), infection, and paraneoplastic syndromes (e.g., bulbar encephalitis).Exogenous substances such as the wide variety of medications and treatments used in these patients, including most of the commonly used chemotherapeutic agents,[12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19] bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, biological response modifiers (e.g., interleukin and interferon), glucocorticoids, and especially psychoactive agents such as opioid analgesics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antihistamines, and other sedating agents.Withdrawal phenomena associated with substances such as alcohol and
Cancell/Cantron/Protocel (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of the Evidence for Cancell / Cantron / Protocel
To assist readers in evaluating the results of human studies of complementary and alternative medicine treatments for cancer, the strength of the evidence (i.e., the levels of evidence) associated with each type of treatment is provided whenever possible. To qualify for a level of evidence analysis, a study must:Be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.Report on a therapeutic outcome or outcomes, such as tumor response, improvement in survival, or measured improvement in quality of life.Describe clinical findings in sufficient detail that a meaningful evaluation can be made.No levels of evidence analysis could be performed for Cancell/Cantron/Protocel because no study of its use in humans has been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. For additional information about levels of evidence analysis, refer to Levels of Evidence for Human Studies of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
The initial therapies of choice are either cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine,2-CdA) or pentostatin.[ 1 ] These drugs have comparable response rates but have not been compared in phase III trials. Cladribine is administered as a one-time continuous infusion or series of subcutaneous injections and is associated with a high rate of febrile neutropenia.[ 2,3,4,5 ] Rarely,more than one ...