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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with urethral cancer.Different types of treatments are available for patients with urethral cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment. Four types of standard treatment are used:SurgerySurgery to remove the cancer is the most common treatment for cancer of the urethra. One of the following types of surgery may be done:Open excision: Removal of the cancer by surgery.Transurethral resection (TUR): Surgery to remove the cancer using a

  2. Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - General CAM Information

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)—also referred to as integrative medicine—includes a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. A therapy is generally called complementary when it is used in addition to conventional treatments; it is often called alternative when it is used instead of conventional treatment. (Conventional treatments are those that are widely accepted and practiced by the mainstream medical community.) Depending on how they are used, some therapies can be considered either complementary or alternative. Complementary and alternative therapies are used in an effort to prevent illness, reduce stress, prevent or reduce side effects and symptoms, or control or cure disease. Unlike conventional treatments for cancer, complementary and alternative therapies are often not covered by insurance companies. Patients should check with their insurance provider to find out about coverage for complementary and alternative therapies. Cancer patients

  3. Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  4. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

    Patients with neck nodes from a presumed unknown primary tumor should be evaluated as follows: Surgical biopsy or excision to establish a histologic diagnosis, but only after an aerodigestive tract primary has been carefully ruled out as in the following procedures:Direct nasopharyngoscopy, laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and esophagoscopy, with biopsy of any suspicious area. If no suspicious lesions are found, random biopsies of the nasopharynx, base of tongue, tonsil, and pyriform sinus on the side of the lesion should be performed.If the tonsil is not present, biopsy of the tonsillar fossa should be performed.Sinus x-rays are probably indicated; if an abnormality is found, it should be biopsied as well.Selected other studies if indicated. In the detection of head and neck tumors and in the distinction of lymph nodes from blood vessels, magnetic resonance imaging offers an advantage over computed tomography scans and should be considered in the initial evaluation of the patient with

  5. Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000276584-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Nutrition in Cancer Care

  6. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Classification and Stage Information for Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

    Tumor SizeUveal melanoma most often assumes a nodular or dome-shaped configuration, but occasionally tumors can be flat or diffuse and involve extensive areas of the uvea with little elevation. Tumor size classifications according to boundary lines used in a Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) are as follows:[1] Small: Range from 1.0 mm to 3.0 mm in apical height and largest basal diameter of 5.0 to 16.0 mm.[1] Medium: Range from 3.1 to 8.0 mm in apical height and a basal diameter of not more than 16.0 mm.[2] Large: Greater than 8.0 mm in apical height or a basal diameter more than 16.0 mm, when the apical height is at least 2.0 mm.Although most ocular melanomas have a raised configuration, about 5% grow in a diffuse pattern that also may have prognostic significance. The tumors have a horizontal, flat-growth pattern, with the thickness measuring approximately 20% or less than the greatest basal dimension. This uncommon variant of uveal

  7. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Urethral Cancer

    Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. In women,the urethra is about 1½ inches long and is just above the vagina. In men,the urethra is about 8 inches long,and goes through the prostate gland and the penis to the outside of the body. In men,the ...

  8. Last Days of Life (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  9. Last Days of Life (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  10. Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Standard treatment options:Combined chemoradiation therapy.[1,2]Combined chemoradiation therapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, as evidenced in INT-0099, for example.[3,4,2,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14]Altered fractionation radiation therapy.[15,16]Neck dissection may be indicated for persistent or recurrent nodes if the primary tumor site is controlled.[17]Treatment options under clinical evaluation:Neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as given in clinical trials has been used to shrink tumors, which renders them more definitively treatable with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is given prior to the other modalities, hence the designation neoadjuvant to distinguish it from standard adjuvant therapy, which is given after or during definitive therapy with radiation or after surgery. Many drug combinations have been used in neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Two randomized prospective trials compared combination chemotherapy (i.e., cisplatin, epirubicin, and bleomycin or cisplatin

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