How It Works
Methotrexate stops the growth of rapidly reproducing cells, such as
cancer cells or fetal cells.
Why It Is Used
Methotrexate is the drug of choice for treating
trophoblastic cancer that affects the uterus only,
which accounts for the vast majority of cancer caused by
Methotrexate can be used to prevent trophoblastic cancer in women
who are considered
high risk for developing cancer after removal of a molar pregnancy.
How Well It Works
Methotrexate cures about 90% of trophoblastic cancer that is
confined to the uterus.1
All medicines have side effects. But many people don't feel the side effects, or they are able to deal with them. Ask your pharmacist about the side effects of each medicine you take. Side effects are also listed in the information that comes with your medicine.
Methotrexate side effects are most likely to occur with long-term
Call911or other emergency services right away if you have:
Call your doctor if you have:
- Severe pain in your belly or pelvis.
- Bloody vomit.
- Signs of unusual bleeding or bruising, such as black and tarry stools or blood in the urine.
- Sores in the mouth or on the lips.
Common side effects of this medicine include:
Rare side effects include:
Skin sensitivity to sunlight.
- Inflammation of the membrane covering the eye.
Sore mouth and throat.
Temporary hair loss.
- Severe low blood counts (bone marrow suppression).
Inflammation of the lung (pneumonitis).
Because of the risk of side effects, methotrexate treatment requires close medical supervision by a doctor who is experienced with this medicine. During methotrexate treatment, keep your doctor informed of any symptoms that you have.
See Drug Reference for a full list of side effects. (Drug Reference
is not available in all systems.)
What To Think About
You will be advised to avoid the following until your treatment has finished:
Follow-up care is a key part of your treatment and safety. Be sure to make and go to all appointments, and call your doctor if you are having problems. It's also a good idea to know your test results and keep a list of the medicines you take.
Complete the new medication information form (PDF)(What is a PDF document?) to help you understand this medication.
Berkowitz RS, Goldstein DP (2007). Gestational
trophoblastic disease. In JS Berek, ed., Berek and Novak's Gynecology, 14th ed., pp. 1581–1603. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams
Primary Medical Reviewer
||Sarah Marshall, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer
||Deborah A. Penava, BA, MD, FRCSC, MPH - Obstetrics and Gynecology
Current as of
||September 19, 2013