Optimal treatment of advanced stages of low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is controversial because of low cure rates with the current therapeutic options. Numerous clinical trials are in progress to settle treatment issues, and patients should be urged to participate. The rate of relapse is fairly constant over time, even in patients who have achieved complete response to treatment. Indeed, relapse may occur many years after treatment. Currently, no randomized trials guide clinicians about the initial choice of watchful waiting, rituximab, nucleoside analogs, alkylating agents, combination chemotherapy, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, or combinations of these options.; [Level of evidence: 1iiDiii]
For patients with indolent, noncontiguous stage II and stage III non-Hodgkin lymphoma, central lymphatic radiation therapy has been proposed but is not usually recommended as a form of treatment.[3,4]
Symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include:
Painless swelling of one or more lymph nodes, with no recent infection. Swelling may be intermittent.
Swelling, fluid accumulation, or pain in the abdomen.
Shortness of breath, wheezing, or coughing.
Bloody stool or vomit.
Swelling of the face, neck, and arms.
Blockage of urine flow.
Unexplained weight loss amounting to 10% of body weight over six months.
Fever lasting for at least 14 consecutive days, usually in...
Numerous prospective clinical trials of interferon-alpha, including SWOG-8809, have shown no consistent benefit; the role of interferon in patients with indolent lymphoma remains controversial.[5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16]
Standard Treatment Options for Indolent, Noncontiguous Stage II/III/IV Adult NHL
Standard treatment options for indolent, noncontiguous stage II/III/IV adult NHL include the following:
Yttrium-90-labeled ibritumomab tiuxetan and iodine-131-labeled tositumomab.
Watchful waiting for asymptomatic patients
The rate of relapse is fairly constant over time, even in patients who have achieved complete responses to treatment. Indeed, relapse may occur many years after treatment. In this category, deferred treatment (i.e., watchful waiting until the patient becomes symptomatic before initiating treatment) should be considered.[2,17,18,19]
Evidence (watchful waiting):
Three randomized trials compared watchful waiting with immediate chemotherapy.[18,20]; [Level of evidence: 1iiA]
All three trials showed no difference in cause-specific or overall survival (OS).
For patients randomly assigned to watchful waiting, the median time to require therapy was 2 to 3 years and one-third of patients never required treatment with watchful waiting (half died of other causes and half remained progression-free after 10 years).