Lymphoma refers to a malignancy of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of nodes (knots of tissue) connected by vessels. Together, the lymph nodes drain fluid and waste products from the body. The lymph nodes act as tiny filters, removing foreign organisms and cells.
Lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that helps fight infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. The lymph node function is to prevent infections from entering the bloodstream. When the lymphatic system...
Added Godot et al. as reference 42 and Louissaint et al. as reference 48.
Revised text to state that mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas observed in pediatric patients usually present as low-stage disease, and pediatric gastric MALT lymphomas are associated with Helicobacter pylori and require no more than local therapy involving curative surgery and/or radiation therapy. Also added text to state that conjunctival MALT lymphomas are often associated with chlamydial psittaci infections (cited Stefanovic et al. as reference 54).
Added text to state that an oral retinoid (bexarotene) has been reported to be active against subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphomas and cutaneous gamma-delta T-cell lymphomas in a series of 15 patients from three institutions (cited Mehta et al. as reference 67).
Treatment Option Overview
Added Nakatani et al. as reference 25.
Low-Stage Childhood NHL Treatment
Revised text to state that with the use of an acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approach with induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapy for a total of 24 months, disease-free survival rates higher than 90% have been reported for children with low-stage lymphoblastic lymphoma (cited Termuhlen et al. as reference 10).
Added Oschlies et al., Lorsbach et al., Agrawal et al., and Louissaint et al. as references 16, 17, 18, and 19, respectively.
Added text to state that subcutaneous mature T-cell lymphomas are very rare in children; an oral retinoid (bexarotene) has been reported to be active against subcutaneous T-cell lymphomas in children (cited Mehta et al. as reference 20).
Revised Table 4 to include the COG-A5971, modified Children's Cancer Group–Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster ALL therapy, as a treatment option for lymphoblastic lymphoma.
High-Stage Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Treatment
Added Pillon et al. as reference 6.
Lymphoproliferative Disease Associated With Immunodeficiency in Children
Added Godot et al. as reference 8.
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