Aggressive, Noncontiguous Stage II�/�III�/�IV Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
CNS prophylaxis (usually with four to six injections of methotrexate intrathecally) is recommended for patients with paranasal sinus or testicular involvement. Some clinicians are employing high-dose intravenous methotrexate (usually four doses) as an alternative to intrathecal therapy because drug delivery is improved and patient morbidity is decreased. CNS prophylaxis for bone marrow involvement is controversial; some investigators recommend it, and others do not.[4,38] A retrospective analysis of 605 patients with diffuse large cell lymphoma who did not receive prophylactic intrathecal therapy identified an elevated serum LDH and more than one extranodal site as independent risk factors for CNS recurrence. Patients with both risk factors have a 17% probability of CNS recurrence at 1 year after diagnosis (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%-28%) versus 2.8% (95% CI, 2.7%-2.9%) for the remaining patients.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiii] Patients with diffuse small noncleaved-cell/Burkitt's lymphoma or lymphoblastic lymphoma have a 20% to 30% lifetime risk of CNS involvement. CNS prophylaxis is recommended for these histologies.
Standard treatment options:
- CHOP plus rituximab.
- Combination chemotherapy alone:
- Autologous BMT or peripheral stem cell transplantation or allogeneic BMT for patients at high risk of relapse is under clinical evaluation.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with aggressive, noncontiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, aggressive, stage III adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma and aggressive, stage IV adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
- Armitage JO: Treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med 328 (14): 1023-30, 1993.
- Longo DL, DeVita VT Jr, Duffey PL, et al.: Superiority of ProMACE-CytaBOM over ProMACE-MOPP in the treatment of advanced diffuse aggressive lymphoma: results of a prospective randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 9 (1): 25-38, 1991.
- Shipp MA, Yeap BY, Harrington DP, et al.: The m-BACOD combination chemotherapy regimen in large-cell lymphoma: analysis of the completed trial and comparison with the M-BACOD regimen. J Clin Oncol 8 (1): 84-93, 1990.
- Fisher RI, Gaynor ER, Dahlberg S, et al.: Comparison of a standard regimen (CHOP) with three intensive chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med 328 (14): 1002-6, 1993.
- Gordon LI, Harrington D, Andersen J, et al.: Comparison of a second-generation combination chemotherapeutic regimen (m-BACOD) with a standard regimen (CHOP) for advanced diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N Engl J Med 327 (19): 1342-9, 1992.
- Cooper IA, Wolf MM, Robertson TI, et al.: Randomized comparison of MACOP-B with CHOP in patients with intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The Australian and New Zealand Lymphoma Group. J Clin Oncol 12 (4): 769-78, 1994.
- O'Connell MJ, Harrington DP, Earle JD, et al.: Prospectively randomized clinical trial of three intensive chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of advanced unfavorable histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 5 (9): 1329-39, 1987.
- Coiffier B, Lepage E, Briere J, et al.: CHOP chemotherapy plus rituximab compared with CHOP alone in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 346 (4): 235-42, 2002.
- Feugier P, Van Hoof A, Sebban C, et al.: Long-term results of the R-CHOP study in the treatment of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a study by the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. J Clin Oncol 23 (18): 4117-26, 2005.
- Pfreundschuh M, Tr�mper L, Osterborg A, et al.: CHOP-like chemotherapy plus rituximab versus CHOP-like chemotherapy alone in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma: a randomised controlled trial by the MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group. Lancet Oncol 7 (5): 379-91, 2006.
- Coiffier B: State-of-the-art therapeutics: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 23 (26): 6387-93, 2005.
- Pfreundschuh M, Tr�mper L, Kloess M, et al.: Two-weekly or 3-weekly CHOP chemotherapy with or without etoposide for the treatment of elderly patients with aggressive lymphomas: results of the NHL-B2 trial of the DSHNHL. Blood 104 (3): 634-41, 2004.
- Pfreundschuh M, Schubert J, Ziepert M, et al.: Six versus eight cycles of bi-weekly CHOP-14 with or without rituximab in elderly patients with aggressive CD20+ B-cell lymphomas: a randomised controlled trial (RICOVER-60). Lancet Oncol 9 (2): 105-16, 2008.
- Tilly H, Lepage E, Coiffier B, et al.: Intensive conventional chemotherapy (ACVBP regimen) compared with standard CHOP for poor-prognosis aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 102 (13): 4284-9, 2003.
- Sonneveld P, de Ridder M, van der Lelie H, et al.: Comparison of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone in the treatment of elderly patients with advanced diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using CHOP versus CNOP chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 13 (10): 2530-9, 1995.
- Osby E, Hagberg H, Kval�y S, et al.: CHOP is superior to CNOP in elderly patients with aggressive lymphoma while outcome is unaffected by filgrastim treatment: results of a Nordic Lymphoma Group randomized trial. Blood 101 (10): 3840-8, 2003.
- Bastion Y, Blay JY, Divine M, et al.: Elderly patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: disease presentation, response to treatment, and survival--a Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte study on 453 patients older than 69 years. J Clin Oncol 15 (8): 2945-53, 1997.
- Tirelli U, Errante D, Van Glabbeke M, et al.: CHOP is the standard regimen in patients > or = 70 years of age with intermediate-grade and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of a randomized study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Study Group. J Clin Oncol 16 (1): 27-34, 1998.
- Gaynor ER, Unger JM, Miller TP, et al.: Infusional CHOP chemotherapy (CVAD) with or without chemosensitizers offers no advantage over standard CHOP therapy in the treatment of lymphoma: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 19 (3): 750-5, 2001.
- Blayney DW, LeBlanc ML, Grogan T, et al.: Dose-intense chemotherapy every 2 weeks with dose-intense cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone may improve survival in intermediate- and high-grade lymphoma: a phase II study of the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG 9349). J Clin Oncol 21 (13): 2466-73, 2003.
- Coiffier B: Increasing chemotherapy intensity in aggressive lymphomas: a renewal? J Clin Oncol 21 (13): 2457-9, 2003.
- Pfreundschuh M, Tr�mper L, Kloess M, et al.: Two-weekly or 3-weekly CHOP chemotherapy with or without etoposide for the treatment of young patients with good-prognosis (normal LDH) aggressive lymphomas: results of the NHL-B1 trial of the DSHNHL. Blood 104 (3): 626-33, 2004.
- A predictive model for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The International Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Prognostic Factors Project. N Engl J Med 329 (14): 987-94, 1993.
- Canellos GP: CHOP may have been part of the beginning but certainly not the end: issues in risk-related therapy of large-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 15 (5): 1713-6, 1997.
- Rosenwald A, Wright G, Chan WC, et al.: The use of molecular profiling to predict survival after chemotherapy for diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 346 (25): 1937-47, 2002.
- Lossos IS, Czerwinski DK, Alizadeh AA, et al.: Prediction of survival in diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma based on the expression of six genes. N Engl J Med 350 (18): 1828-37, 2004.
- Haioun C, Lepage E, Gisselbrecht C, et al.: Survival benefit of high-dose therapy in poor-risk aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: final analysis of the prospective LNH87-2 protocol--a groupe d'Etude des lymphomes de l'Adulte study. J Clin Oncol 18 (16): 3025-30, 2000.
- Haioun C, Lepage E, Gisselbrecht C, et al.: Benefit of autologous bone marrow transplantation over sequential chemotherapy in poor-risk aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: updated results of the prospective study LNH87-2. Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. J Clin Oncol 15 (3): 1131-7, 1997.
- Santini G, Salvagno L, Leoni P, et al.: VACOP-B versus VACOP-B plus autologous bone marrow transplantation for advanced diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of a prospective randomized trial by the non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Cooperative Study Group. J Clin Oncol 16 (8): 2796-802, 1998.
- Gianni AM, Bregni M, Siena S, et al.: High-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation compared with MACOP-B in aggressive B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 336 (18): 1290-7, 1997.
- Kluin-Nelemans HC, Zagonel V, Anastasopoulou A, et al.: Standard chemotherapy with or without high-dose chemotherapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: randomized phase III EORTC study. J Natl Cancer Inst 93 (1): 22-30, 2001.
- Gisselbrecht C, Lepage E, Molina T, et al.: Shortened first-line high-dose chemotherapy for patients with poor-prognosis aggressive lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 20 (10): 2472-9, 2002.
- Martelli M, Gherlinzoni F, De Renzo A, et al.: Early autologous stem-cell transplantation versus conventional chemotherapy as front-line therapy in high-risk, aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: an Italian multicenter randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 21 (7): 1255-62, 2003.
- Milpied N, Deconinck E, Gaillard F, et al.: Initial treatment of aggressive lymphoma with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell support. N Engl J Med 350 (13): 1287-95, 2004.
- Betticher DC, Martinelli G, Radford JA, et al.: Sequential high dose chemotherapy as initial treatment for aggressive sub-types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: results of the international randomized phase III trial (MISTRAL). Ann Oncol 17 (10): 1546-52, 2006.
- Shipp MA, Abeloff MD, Antman KH, et al.: International Consensus Conference on high-dose therapy with hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: report of the jury. Ann Oncol 10 (1): 13-9, 1999.
- Glantz MJ, Cole BF, Recht L, et al.: High-dose intravenous methotrexate for patients with nonleukemic leptomeningeal cancer: is intrathecal chemotherapy necessary? J Clin Oncol 16 (4): 1561-7, 1998.
- Bernstein SH, Unger JM, Leblanc M, et al.: Natural history of CNS relapse in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a 20-year follow-up analysis of SWOG 8516 -- the Southwest Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 27 (1): 114-9, 2009.
- van Besien K, Ha CS, Murphy S, et al.: Risk factors, treatment, and outcome of central nervous system recurrence in adults with intermediate-grade and immunoblastic lymphoma. Blood 91 (4): 1178-84, 1998.