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Pancreatic Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Pancreatic Cancer

  1. Whipple Procedure

    WebMD explains the Whipple surgical procedure for pancreatic cancer.

  2. Changes to This Summary (08 / 08 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.

  3. Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with pancreatic NETs. Different types of treatments are available for patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Six types of standard treatment are used:Surgery An operation may be done to remove the tumor. One of the following types of surgery may be used:Enucleation: Surgery to remove the tumor only. This may be done when cancer occurs in one place in the

  4. Insulinoma

    Curative surgical excision, by open laparotomy or laparoscopy, is the treatment of choice when possible. The open surgical approach is used if the tumor is suspected to be malignant, since en bloc lymphadenectomy is performed for malignant tumors without distant metastases. Intraoperative ultrasound aids the localization of tumor extent and the relationship to other anatomic structures.[1]Standard treatment options:Single small lesion in head or tail of pancreas:[1,2,3,4]Enucleation, if feasible. Large lesion in the head of the pancreas that is not amenable to enucleation:[1,2,3,4]Pancreaticoduodenectomy.Single large lesion in body/tail:[1,2,3,4]Distal pancreatectomy.Multiple lesions: occur in 10%, often in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1):[1,2,3,4]Distal pancreatectomy with enucleation of tumors in the head of the pancreas.Metastatic lesions: lymph nodes or distant sites:[5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12]Resect when possible.Consider radiofrequency or

  5. Cellular Classification of Pancreatic Cancer

    Pancreatic cancer includes the following carcinomas:MalignantDuct cell carcinoma (90% of all cases).Acinar cell carcinoma.Adenosquamous carcinoma.Cystadenocarcinoma (serous and mucinous types).Giant cell carcinoma.Invasive adenocarcinoma associated with cystic mucinous neoplasm or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.Mixed type (ductal-endocrine or acinar-endocrine).Mucinous carcinoma.Pancreatoblastoma.Papillary-cystic neoplasm (Frantz tumor). This tumor has lower malignant potential and may be cured with surgery alone.[1,2]Papillary mucinous carcinoma.Signet ring carcinoma.Small cell carcinoma.Unclassified.Undifferentiated carcinoma.Borderline Malignancies Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor with dysplasia.[3]Mucinous cystic tumor with dysplasia.Pseudopapillary solid tumor.References: Sanchez JA, Newman KD, Eichelberger MR, et al.: The papillary-cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. An increasingly recognized clinicopathologic entity. Arch Surg 125 (11): 1502-5, 1990. Warshaw AL,

  6. Miscellaneous Islet Cell Tumors

    VIPomaImmediate fluid resuscitation is often necessary to correct the electrolyte and fluid problems that occur as a result of the watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria that patients experience. Somatostatin analogs are also used to ameliorate the large fluid and electrolyte losses. Once patients are stabilized, excision of the primary tumor and regional nodes is the first line of therapy for clinically localized disease. In the case of locally advanced or metastatic disease, where curative resection is not possible, debulking and removal of gross disease, including metastases, should be considered to alleviate the characteristic manifestations of VIP overproduction.[1] (Refer to the Treatment Option Overview section of this summary for information about the remaining principles of therapy.)SomatostatinomaComplete excision is the therapy of choice, if technically possible. However, metastases often preclude curative resection, and palliative debulking can be considered to

  7. nci_ncicdr0000062678-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment

  8. nci_ncicdr0000062794-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment

  9. General Information About Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

    Tumors of the endocrine pancreas are a collection of tumor cell types collectively referred to as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). These tumors originate in islet cells. Although they may be similar or identical in histologic appearance to carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, differences in their underlying biology and likely differences in response to therapeutic agents suggest that they should be treated and investigated as a distinct entity.[1] They are uncommon cancers with about 1,000 new cases per year in the United States.[2] They account for 3% to 5% of pancreatic malignancies and overall have a better prognosis than the more common pancreatic exocrine tumors.[2,3] Five-year survival is about 55% when the tumors are localized and resected but only about 15% when the tumors are not resectable.[3] Overall 5-year survival rate is about 42%.[2]Figure 1. Cancer of the Pancreas: Relative Survival Rates (%) by Histologic Subtype, Ages 20+, 12 SEER Areas,

  10. Treatment Options by Stage

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Stages I and II Pancreatic CancerTreatment of stage I and stage II pancreatic cancer may include the following:Surgery.Surgery followed by chemotherapy.Surgery followed by chemoradiation.A clinical trial of combination chemotherapy.A clinical trial of chemotherapy and targeted therapy, with or without chemoradiation.A clinical trial of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy before surgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I pancreatic cancer and stage II pancreatic cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about

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