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Pancreatic Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Pancreatic Cancer

  1. Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with pancreatic NETs. Different types of treatments are available for patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Six types of standard treatment are used:Surgery An operation may be done to remove the tumor. One of the following types of surgery may be used:Enucleation: Surgery to remove the tumor only. This may be done when cancer occurs in one place in the

  2. Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

    Treatment Options for Recurrent Pancreatic CancerTreatment options for recurrent pancreatic cancer include the following:Palliative therapy.Chemotherapy: fluorouracil [1] or gemcitabine.[2,3,4]Palliative therapyPalliative therapy for recurrent pancreatic cancer includes the following:Palliative surgical bypass procedures such as endoscopic or radiologically placed stents.[5,6]Palliative radiation procedures.Pain relief by celiac axis nerve or intrapleural block (percutaneous).[7]Other palliative medical care alone.ChemotherapyChemotherapy occasionally produces objective antitumor response, but the low percentage of significant responses and lack of survival advantage warrant use of therapies under evaluation.[8]Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation for Recurrent Pancreatic CancerTreatment options under clinical evaluation include the following:Phase I and II clinical trials evaluating pharmacologic modulation of fluorinated pyrimidines, new anticancer agents, or biological

  3. Cryosurgery for Prostate Cancer - Stages of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    The plan for cancer treatment depends on where the NET is found in the pancreas and whether it has spread. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the pancreas or to other parts of the body is called staging. The results of the tests and procedures used to diagnose pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are also used to find out whether the cancer has spread. See the General Information section for a description of these tests and procedures. Although there is a standard staging system for pancreatic NETs, it is not used to plan treatment. Treatment of pancreatic NETs is based on the following: Whether the cancer is found in one place in the pancreas.Whether the cancer is found in several places in the pancreas.Whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the pancreas or to other parts of the body such as the liver, lung, peritoneum, or bone.There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:Through tissue.

  4. Cryosurgery for Prostate Cancer - Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer

    Recurrent pancreatic cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the pancreas or in other parts of the body.

  5. Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

    Treatment Options for Stage IV Pancreatic CancerTreatment options for stage IV pancreatic cancer include the following:Palliative therapy.Chemotherapy: gemcitabine; gemcitabine and erlotinib; or oxaliplatin, irinotecan, leucovorin, and fluorouracil (5-FU) (FOLFIRINOX).[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]Palliative therapyPalliative therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer includes the following:Pain-relieving procedures (e.g., celiac or intrapleural block) and supportive care.[11]Palliative surgical biliary bypass, percutaneous radiologic biliary stent placement, or endoscopically placed biliary stents.[12,13,14]ChemotherapyThe low objective response rate and lack of survival benefit with current chemotherapy indicates that clinical trials are appropriate treatment of all newly diagnosed patients. Occasionally, patients have palliation of symptoms when treated with chemotherapy with well-tested older drugs, such as 5-FU. Gemcitabine has demonstrated activity in patients with pancreatic

  6. Cryosurgery for Prostate Cancer - Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

    Tests and procedures to stage pancreatic cancer are usually done at the same time as diagnosis. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the pancreas or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage of the disease in order to plan treatment. The results of some of the tests used to diagnose pancreatic cancer are often also used to stage the disease. See the General Information section for more information.There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.When cancer cells break away from the primary

  7. Cryosurgery for Prostate Cancer - Stage Information for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

    Note: The American Joint Committee on Cancer has published the 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, which for the first time incorporates pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in the same staging system as pancreatic exocrine tumors.[1] The classification of these tumors as benign versus malignant is not always consistent, so the AJCC recommends that all pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors be staged using this system and reported to cancer registries. It also recommends that the protocol developed by the College of American Pathologists for endocrine pancreatic tumors be used to examine and stage specimens.[2]Definitions of TNMThe American Joint Committee on Cancer has designated staging by TNM classification to define pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors).[1]Table 2. Primary Tumor (T)aa Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Exocrine and endocrine pancreas. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer,

  8. Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Gastrinoma Treatment of gastrinoma may include supportive care and the following:For symptoms caused by too much stomach acid, treatment may be a drug that decreases the amount of acid made by the stomach.For a single tumor in the head of the pancreas:Surgery to remove the tumor.Surgery to cut the nerve that causes stomach cells to make acid and treatment with a drug that decreases stomach acid.Surgery to remove the whole stomach (rare).For a single tumor in the body or tail of the pancreas, treatment is usually surgery to remove the body or tail of the pancreas.For several tumors in the pancreas, treatment is usually surgery to remove the body or tail of the pancreas. If tumor remains after surgery, treatment may include either:Surgery to

  9. Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

    Treatment Options for Stage III Pancreatic CancerWhile stage III and stage IV pancreatic cancer are both incurable, the natural history of stage III (locally advanced) disease may be different than it is for stage IV disease. An autopsy series demonstrated that 30% of patients presenting with stage III disease died without evidence of distant metastases.[1][Level of evidence: 1iiA] Therefore, investigators have struggled with the question of whether chemoradiation for patients presenting with stage III disease is warranted.Treatment options for stage III pancreatic cancer include the following:Palliative surgery: palliative surgical biliary and/or gastric bypass, percutaneous radiologic biliary stent placement, or endoscopic biliary stent placement.[2,3]Chemoradiation therapy:Chemoradiation followed by chemotherapy.Chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation, for patients without metastatic disease.Chemotherapy: gemcitabine; gemcitabine and

  10. Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Glucagonoma

    As with the other pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, the mainstay of therapy is surgical resection, and extended survival is possible even when the disease is metastatic. Resection of metastases is also a consideration when feasible.[1]Standard treatment options:Single small lesion in head or tail of pancreas:[1,2,3,4]Enucleation, if feasible.Large lesion in the head of the pancreas that is not amenable to enucleation:[1,2,3,4]Pancreaticoduodenectomy.Single large lesion in body/tail:[1,2,3,4]Distal pancreatectomy.Multiple lesions:[1,2,3,4]Enucleation, if feasible.Resect body and tail otherwise.Metastatic disease: lymph nodes or distant sites:[5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12]Resect when possible.Consider radiofrequency or cryosurgical ablation, if not resectable. Unresectable disease:[13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22]Combination chemotherapy.Somatostatin analogue therapy. Necrotizing erythema of glucagonoma may be relieved in 24 hours with somatostatin analogue, with nearly complete disappearance

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