Oct. 27, 2010 -- Pancreatic cancer is among the most lethal malignancies, with fewer than 5% of patients still alive five years after diagnosis.
It has long been suspected the disease is so deadly because it grows so quickly, but surprising new research finds the opposite to be true.
The investigation found that pancreatic cancer develops and spreads much more slowly than has been thought, with the timeline from when it first forms to when it kills spanning two decades or more, says Christine Iacobuzio-Donahue, MD, PhD, of Baltimore’s Johns Hopkins Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center.
That means effective early detection strategies could have a major impact on outcomes, transforming a highly fatal disease into a largely treatable or sometimes preventable one like colon cancer, she adds.
The research appears in the Oct. 28 issue of the journal Nature.
“Based on this research there is reason to be very optimistic about how we will approach pancreatic cancer in the future,” Iacobuzio-Donahue tells WebMD. “I really do believe we will make great strides in curing people with this disease.”
It’s estimated that about 43,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer will be diagnosed in 2010 in the U.S. and about 37,000 people will die of the disease, according to the National Cancer Institute.
The vast majority of patients are diagnosed after their cancer has spread to distant organs. Very few patients show sustained responses to treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.
A major focus of the Hopkins research has been to determine whether this is a result of rapid spread of the disease or late detection.
By analyzing tissue samples taken from seven patients immediately after their deaths from pancreatic cancer, the researchers identified distinct subclones of cancer cells present in primary tumors years before the cancer spread to other parts of the body.
Using a mathematical model, they estimated that it takes on average about 20 years from the beginning of the tumor process to death from pancreatic cancer.
Iacobuzio-Donahue says the finding shows the importance of efforts to find effective screening strategies to detect pancreatic cancer in the years before symptoms occur.
“The thinking has been that pancreatic cancer is so aggressive there isn’t much that can be done about it, but there is a lot that we can do even now,” she says.