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    Acupuncture (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Human / Clinical Studies

    Table 3. Clinical Studies of Acupuncture: Nausea and Vomitinga

    Reference Citation(s) Type of Study Condition Treated No. of Patients: Enrolled; Treated; Controlb Strongest Benefit Reportedc Concurrent Therapyd Level of Evidence Scoree
    CT = controlled trial; EA = electroacupuncture; No. = number; N/V = nausea and vomiting; RCT = randomized controlled trial.
    a Refer to text and theNCI Dictionary of Cancer Termsfor additional information and definition of terms.
    b Number of patients treated plus number of patient controls may not equal number of patients enrolled; number of patients enrolled equals number of patients initially considered by the researcher who conducted a study; number of patients treated equals number of enrolled patients who were given the treatment being studied AND for whom results were reported;historical control subjectsare not included in number of patients enrolled.
    c Strongest evidence reported that the treatment under study has activity or improves the well-being of cancer patients.
    d Concurrent therapy for symptoms treated (not cancer).
    e For information about levels of evidence analysis and an explanation of the level of evidence scores, refer toLevels of Evidence for Human Studies of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
    f P< .001, low-frequency EA at classical antiemetic acupuncture points daily versus minimal needling at control points with sham EA versus no adjunct needling.
    g P< .001, EA versus sham EA.
    h P< .001,surface electrodesversus rubber electrodes.
    i P< .00059.
    j P< .02, acupressure versus acupressure at a sham point.
    k P< .05, acupuncture versusnoninvasiveplacebo acupuncture.
    l P< .05, acupressure andacustimulationwrist bands versus no treatment.
    [26] RCT N/V related to high-dose chemotherapy for breast cancer 104; 37; 67 (sham EA or no EA) Less N/V in EA groupf Yes (prochlorperazine, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine) 1iiC
    [24,30,31] RCT N/V from chemotherapy 10; 10 EA; 10 sham EA (crossover study) Significantly less N/V than controlg Yes (metoclopramide) 1iiC
    [27] RCT N/V from chemotherapy 100 (these patients were used more than once because of nature of crossover study); 27surface electrodes; 11 rubber electrodes; 14 crossover study; 24 transcutaneous electrical stimulation 75% achieved considerable benefith Yes (metoclopramide,thiethylperazine, prochlorperazine, cyclizine, lorazepam, and steroid) 1iiC
    [34] RCT N/V from chemotherapy 16 (the same 16 patients treated twice in a crossover study); 16 ondansetron plus transcutaneous electrical stimulation; 16 cross-over treatment ondansetron only Symptom-free patient days: 58.8%i Yes (ondansetron) 1iiC
    [32] RCT N/V from chemotherapy 53 enrolled; 38 completed; 38 acupressure; 38 crossover to acupressure at a sham point 55% reduction in N/Vj Yes (antiemetics) 1iiC
    [36] RCT N/V from high-dose chemotherapy 80; 41 acupuncture; 39 noninvasive placebo acupuncture Nonek Yes (ondansetron) 1iiC
    [35] RCT N/V from chemotherapy 739; 233bilateralacupressure bands and 234transcutaneous electrical stimulationbands; 233 no bands; 39 not evaluable Less N/V in treatment groups than in controll Yes (5-HT3 receptorantagonist,prochlorperazine, and/or others) 1iiC
    [37] RCT N/V from chemotherapy 142; 48 acupuncture + vitamin B6 PC6 point injection; 46 vitamin B6; 48 acupuncture Fewer emesis episodes Yes (diazepam, diphenhydramine, cimetidine, and granisetron) 1iiC
    [41] RCT N/V from chemotherapy 36; 17 acupressure; 19 control Significantly lower N/V Yes (antiemetics) 1iiC
    [40] RCT N/V from radiation 277; 215; 62 Less nausea Yes (antiemetics) 1iiC
    [38] RCT N/V from moderate to highly emetogenic chemotherapy 160; 96; 54 Decreased delayed N/V for acupressure Yes (anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, and an antiemetic) 1iiC
    [25] Nonrandomized controlled trial N/V from chemotherapy 105; EA at P6 63%, complete relief, at least 8 h Yes (metoclopramide; prednisolone) 2C
    [25] CT N/V from chemotherapy 43; 38 10 Hz EA; 5 sham (crossover subset) 8-10 h relief; 32 patients had complete relief Yes (antiemetics) 2C
    [33] CT N/V from chemotherapy 18; 18 acupressure bands; 18 (crossover study-incorrect placement of acupressure bands) Effective for N/V Yes (antiemetics: prochlorperazine,metoclopramide, and domperidonesuppository) 2C
    [29] Nonconsecutive case series N/V from chemotherapy 26; 26 acupuncture; 51 historical controls-no acupuncture Meanno. of episodes and duration of N/V reduced Yes (metoclopramide,dexamethasone,and diphenhydramine) 3iiiC
    [24] Nonconsecutive case series (pilot study) N/V from chemotherapy 15; 15 EA; none 12 patients-no symptoms for 8 h Yes (antiemetic: metoclopramide) 3iiiC
    [28,30] Consecutive case study N/V from chemotherapy 40; 40 acupressure 8-24 h relief Yes (not specified) 3iiC
    [42] Consecutive, uncontrolled case series N/V from chemotherapy mean no. of emesis 7-3 27; no controls 10 patients had complete response to EA and had no vomiting Yes (antiemetics: either ondansetron 8 mg or granisetron 3 mg) 3iiiC
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