Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer
Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body.
When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood.
- Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
- Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if primary liver cancer spreads to the lung, the cancer cells in the lung are actually liver cancer cells. The disease is metastatic liver cancer, not lung cancer.
The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Staging System may be used to stage adult primary liver cancer.
There are several staging systems for liver cancer. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Staging System is widely used and is described below. This system is used to predict the patient's chance of recovery and to plan treatment, based on the following:
- Whether the cancer has spread within the liver or to other parts of the body.
- How well the liver is working.
- The general health and wellness of the patient.
- The symptoms caused by the cancer.
The BCLC staging system has five stages:
- Stage 0: Very early
- Stage A: Early
- Stage B: Intermediate
- Stage C: Advanced
- Stage D: End-stage
The following groups are used to plan treatment.
BCLC stages 0, A, and B
Treatment to cure the cancer is given for BCLC stages 0, A, and B.
BCLC stages C and D
Treatment to relieve the symptoms caused by liver cancer and improve the patient's quality of life is given for BCLC stages C and D. Treatments are not likely to cure the cancer.