Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)
The treatment of AIDS-related lymphomas involves overcoming several problems. These are all aggressive lymphomas, which by definition are diffuse large cell/immunoblastic lymphoma or small noncleaved cell lymphoma. These lymphomas frequently involve the bone marrow and central nervous system (CNS) and, therefore, are usually in an advanced stage. In addition, the immunodeficiency of AIDS and the leukopenia that is commonly seen with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection makes the use of immunosuppressive chemotherapy difficult.
Caregivers of cancer patients are expected to function broadly, providing direct care, assistance with activities of daily living, case management, emotional support, companionship, and medication supervision. Caregivers of cancer patients generally undertake multifaceted responsibilities for tasks such as the following:
Administrative tasks (case management, management of insurance claims, bill payment).
Instrumental tasks (accompanying the cancer patient to medical appointments;...
A large number of retrospective studies and several prospective studies have been reported using regimens such as cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP), methotrexate, bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dexamethasone (m-BACOD), and infusional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide.[1,2,3,4] The patients who go into remission are more likely to have less disease, no bone marrow or CNS involvement, no prior AIDS-defining illness, and a better performance status. Patients at risk for subsequent CNS involvement include those with bone marrow involvement or those with Epstein-Barr virus identified in the primary tumor or in the cerebrospinal fluid (i.e., by polymerase chain reaction).[5,6,7] Intrathecal chemotherapy is usually considered for those patients at higher risk for CNS involvement.
Prior to the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, a randomized trial of patients with HIV and either Burkitt lymphoma (BL) or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) compared standard dose chemotherapy and growth factor support with reduced-dose chemotherapy. No difference was found in overall survival (OS) between the two dose levels, and no difference was observed between the historic groups (BL and DLBCL); however, the median survival was equally poor at 6 to 7 months.[Level of evidence: 1iiA] The introduction of HAART has led to a marked reduction in opportunistic infections, prolonged survival with HIV infection, and a median OS for patients with AIDS-related lymphoma, which is comparable to the outcome in the nonimmunosuppressed population.[4,8,9,10,11,12,13,14][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] The use of HAART has also allowed the use of standard dose and even intensive chemotherapy regimens to be given with reasonable safety to patients with AIDS-related lymphomas, which is comparable to the outcome in non-HIV patients.[3,4,13,14,15,16]
In a retrospective review of 363 patients with HIV-associated lymphoma, survival of patients with HIV-DLBCL improved in the HAART era, but survival of similarly treated patients with HIV-BL remained poor.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] Future studies will evaluate if more intensive chemotherapy appropriate for non-HIV patients with BL results in better outcomes for patients with HIV-BL. A prospective randomized comparison (AMC-010) of rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) versus CHOP in 150 patients with HIV-DLBCL and HIV-BL showed no difference in (OS); treatment-related infectious deaths occurred in 14% of patients who received R-CHOP versus 2% of patients who received CHOP alone (P = .035).[Level of evidence: 1iiA] A Cochrane meta-analysis published in 2009 evaluated 857 patients in four randomized clinical trials; no clinical conclusions regarding the optimal regimen could be reached as a result of varying interventions and the lack of adequately powered trials with a low risk of bias.