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Malignant Pleural Effusion

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    Surgical treatment

    For rare patients, standard management of the malignant effusion is unsuccessful and aggressive treatment remains appropriate. Pleuroperitoneal shunting can be considered for these patients. This procedure involves implantation of a shunt with one-way valves that allow the transfer of fluid from the pleural space to the peritoneal space, in which the fluid creates less hazard and is more easily removed. Another option is surgical pleurectomy, but this procedure requires general anesthesia. The risks of significant acute and chronic pain as well as other morbidity approaches 20% to 25%, and the risk of 1-month mortality is 5% to 10%.[2]

    Current Clinical Trials

    Check NCI's list of cancer clinical trials for U.S. supportive and palliative care trials about malignant pleural effusion that are now accepting participants. The list of trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

    General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

    References:

    1. Maghfoor I, Doll DC, Yarbro JW: Effusions. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Lichter AS, et al., eds.: Clinical Oncology. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 2000, pp 922-49.
    2. Fiocco M, Krasna MJ: The management of malignant pleural and pericardial effusions. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 11 (2): 253-65, 1997.
    3. Light RW: Useful tests on the pleural fluid in the management of patients with pleural effusions. Curr Opin Pulm Med 5 (4): 245-9, 1999.
    4. Burrows CM, Mathews WC, Colt HG: Predicting survival in patients with recurrent symptomatic malignant pleural effusions: an assessment of the prognostic values of physiologic, morphologic, and quality of life measures of extent of disease. Chest 117 (1): 73-8, 2000.
    5. Sahn SA: Malignant pleural effusions. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 22 (6): 607-16, 2001.
    6. Tattersall M: Management of malignant pleural effusion. Aust N Z J Med 28 (3): 394-6, 1998.
    7. Schafers SJ, Dresler CM: Update on talc, bleomycin, and the tetracyclines in the treatment of malignant pleural effusions. Pharmacotherapy 15 (2): 228-35, 1995 Mar-Apr.
    8. Anderson CB, Philpott GW, Ferguson TB: The treatment of malignant pleural effusions. Cancer 33 (4): 916-22, 1974.
    9. Tremblay A, Michaud G: Single-center experience with 250 tunnelled pleural catheter insertions for malignant pleural effusion. Chest 129 (2): 362-8, 2006.
    10. Putnam JB Jr, Light RW, Rodriguez RM, et al.: A randomized comparison of indwelling pleural catheter and doxycycline pleurodesis in the management of malignant pleural effusions. Cancer 86 (10): 1992-9, 1999.
    11. Davies HE, Mishra EK, Kahan BC, et al.: Effect of an indwelling pleural catheter vs chest tube and talc pleurodesis for relieving dyspnea in patients with malignant pleural effusion: the TIME2 randomized controlled trial. JAMA 307 (22): 2383-9, 2012.
    12. Akopov AL, Egorov VI, Varlamov VV, et al.: Thoracoscopic collagen pleurodesis in the treatment of malignant pleural effusions. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 28 (5): 750-3, 2005.
    13. Gravelyn TR, Michelson MK, Gross BH, et al.: Tetracycline pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions. A 10-year retrospective study. Cancer 59 (11): 1973-7, 1987.
    14. Markman M, Cleary S, King ME, et al.: Cisplatin and cytarabine administered intrapleurally as treatment of malignant pleural effusions. Med Pediatr Oncol 13 (4): 191-3, 1985.
    15. Heffner JE, Standerfer RJ, Torstveit J, et al.: Clinical efficacy of doxycycline for pleurodesis. Chest 105 (6): 1743-7, 1994.
    16. Holoye PY, Jeffries DG, Dhingra HM, et al.: Intrapleural etoposide for malignant effusion. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 26 (2): 147-50, 1990.
    17. Ostrowski MJ, Priestman TJ, Houston RF, et al.: A randomized trial of intracavitary bleomycin and Corynebacterium parvum in the control of malignant pleural effusions. Radiother Oncol 14 (1): 19-26, 1989.
    18. Martínez-Moragón E, Aparicio J, Rogado MC, et al.: Pleurodesis in malignant pleural effusions: a randomized study of tetracycline versus bleomycin. Eur Respir J 10 (10): 2380-3, 1997.
    19. Emad A, Rezaian GR: Treatment of malignant pleural effusions with a combination of bleomycin and tetracycline. A comparison of bleomycin or tetracycline alone versus a combination of bleomycin and tetracycline. Cancer 78 (12): 2498-501, 1996.
    20. Zimmer PW, Hill M, Casey K, et al.: Prospective randomized trial of talc slurry vs bleomycin in pleurodesis for symptomatic malignant pleural effusions. Chest 112 (2): 430-4, 1997.
    21. Patz EF Jr, McAdams HP, Erasmus JJ, et al.: Sclerotherapy for malignant pleural effusions: a prospective randomized trial of bleomycin vs doxycycline with small-bore catheter drainage. Chest 113 (5): 1305-11, 1998.
    22. Yim AP, Chan AT, Lee TW, et al.: Thoracoscopic talc insufflation versus talc slurry for symptomatic malignant pleural effusion. Ann Thorac Surg 62 (6): 1655-8, 1996.
    23. Nio Y, Nagami H, Tamura K, et al.: Multi-institutional randomized clinical study on the comparative effects of intracavital chemotherapy alone versus immunotherapy alone versus immunochemotherapy for malignant effusion. Br J Cancer 80 (5-6): 775-85, 1999.
    24. Noppen M, Degreve J, Mignolet M, et al.: A prospective, randomised study comparing the efficacy of talc slurry and bleomycin in the treatment of malignant pleural effusions. Acta Clin Belg 52 (5): 258-62, 1997.
    25. Walker-Renard PB, Vaughan LM, Sahn SA: Chemical pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions. Ann Intern Med 120 (1): 56-64, 1994.
    26. Kuzdzał J, Sładek K, Wasowski D, et al.: Talc powder vs doxycycline in the control of malignant pleural effusion: a prospective, randomized trial. Med Sci Monit 9 (6): PI54-9, 2003.
    27. Hsu LH, Soong TC, Feng AC, et al.: Intrapleural urokinase for the treatment of loculated malignant pleural effusions and trapped lungs in medically inoperable cancer patients. J Thorac Oncol 1 (5): 460-7, 2006.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: 8/, 015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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