Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Testicular Cancer Treatment and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available.
Based on fair evidence, screening for testicular cancer would not result in an appreciable decrease in mortality, in part because therapy at each stage is so effective.
Magnitude of Effect: Fair evidence of no reduction in mortality.
Study Design: Opinions of respected authorities based on clinical experience, descriptive...
This section was renamed from Dyspnea and Coughing in Patients With Advanced Cancer.
Revised text to state that peripheral and central mechanisms as well as mechanical and chemical pathways are involved with a variety of sensory afferent sources (cited Widdicombe as reference 9, Lee as reference 10, and Undem et al. as reference 11).
Added text about the qualities of dyspnea (cited Parshall et al. as reference 12).
Added text about assessing dyspnea (cited Bausewein et al. as reference 16 and Dorman et al. as reference 17).
Added text to state that functional assessments such as the 6-minute walk test and exercise ergometry may also provide valuable information about the severity and impact of dyspnea (cited American Thoracic Society as reference 19 and ATS Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories as reference 20).
Revised text to include a study of the role of supplemental oxygen in patients without hypoxemia (cited Abernethy et al. as reference 34).
Added text about high-flow oxygen devices and bilevel positive airway pressure (cited Hui et al. as reference 35 and Nava et al. as reference 36).
Added percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy as a treatment option.
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