Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. In 2014, about 1.6 million people will be diagnosed with cancer in the United States. In addition to the physical problems and emotional distress caused by cancer, the high costs of care are also a burden to patients, their families, and to the public. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer is lowered. Hopefully, this will reduce the burden of cancer and lower the number of deaths caused by cancer.
This section was renamed from Dyspnea and Coughing in Patients With Advanced Cancer.
Revised text to state that peripheral and central mechanisms as well as mechanical and chemical pathways are involved with a variety of sensory afferent sources (cited Widdicombe as reference 9, Lee as reference 10, and Undem et al. as reference 11).
Added text about the qualities of dyspnea (cited Parshall et al. as reference 12).
Added text about assessing dyspnea (cited Bausewein et al. as reference 16 and Dorman et al. as reference 17).
Added text to state that functional assessments such as the 6-minute walk test and exercise ergometry may also provide valuable information about the severity and impact of dyspnea (cited American Thoracic Society as reference 19 and ATS Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories as reference 20).
Revised text to include a study of the role of supplemental oxygen in patients without hypoxemia (cited Abernethy et al. as reference 34).
Added text about high-flow oxygen devices and bilevel positive airway pressure (cited Hui et al. as reference 35 and Nava et al. as reference 36).
Added percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy as a treatment option.
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