Superior vena cava syndrome in a child is a serious medical emergency because the child's windpipe can become blocked.
Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) in children can be life-threatening. This is because the trachea (windpipe) can quickly become blocked. In adults, the windpipe is fairly stiff, but in children, it is softer and can more easily be squeezed shut. Also, a child's windpipe is narrower, so any amount of swelling can cause breathing problems. Squeezing of the trachea is called superior mediastinal syndrome (SMS). Because SVCS and SMS usually happen together in children, the two syndromes are considered to be the same.
Cancell is a trademarked name of a liquid mixture long promoted as a treatment for people with cancer and other diseases (see Question 1).
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has listed the ingredients of Cancell as the chemicals inositol, nitric acid, sodium sulfite, potassium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, and catechol (see Question 3).
Cantron and Protocel are other products that are said to be similar to Cancell.
None of the common chemicals in these products is known to be effective...
SVCS in children is rare. The most common cause is non-Hodgkin lymphoma. As in adults, SVCS may also be caused by a blood clot that forms during use of an intravenous catheter (flexible tube used to put fluids into or take blood out of a vein) in the superior vena cava.
SVCS in children may be diagnosed and treated before a diagnosis of cancer is made.
A physical exam, chest x-ray, and medical history are usually all that are needed to diagnose superior vena cava syndrome in children. Even if doctors think cancer is causing SVCS, a biopsy may not be done. This is because the lungs and heart of a child with SVCS may not be able to handle the anesthesia needed. Other imaging tests may be done to help find out if anesthesia can be safely used. In most cases, treatment will begin before a diagnosis of cancer is made.
The following treatments may be used for SVCS in children:
Radiation therapy is usually used to treat a tumor that is blocking the vein. After radiation therapy, there may be more trouble breathing because swelling narrows the windpipe. A drug to reduce swelling may be given.
Anticancer drugs, steroids, or other drugs may be used. If the tumor does not respond, it may be benign (not cancer).
This may include surgery to bypass (go around) the blocked part of the vein or to place a stent (thin tube) to open the vein.
In this article
This information is produced and provided by the National
Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National
Institute via the Internet web site at http://
.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.
WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute
September 04, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor.
Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this