Skip to content

    Cancer Health Center

    Font Size

    Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Laboratory / Animal / Preclinical Studies


    The cartilage-derived antiangiogenic substance troponin I (TnI) has been isolated from human cartilage and has been produced by the cloning and expression of cDNA of human cartilage. It has been shown to specifically inhibit angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo.[43] The active site of Tnl has been located in the amino acid residues of 96 to 116. The synthetic peptide Glu94-Leu123 (pTnl) has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell tube formation and endothelial cell division and to inhibit pancreatic cancer metastases in an in vivoliver metastases model.[44]


    1. Durie BG, Soehnlen B, Prudden JF: Antitumor activity of bovine cartilage extract (Catrix-S) in the human tumor stem cell assay. J Biol Response Mod 4 (6): 590-5, 1985.
    2. McGuire TR, Kazakoff PW, Hoie EB, et al.: Antiproliferative activity of shark cartilage with and without tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human umbilical vein endothelium. Pharmacotherapy 16 (2): 237-44, 1996 Mar-Apr.
    3. Prudden JF: The treatment of human cancer with agents prepared from bovine cartilage. J Biol Response Mod 4 (6): 551-84, 1985.
    4. Romano CF, Lipton A, Harvey HA, et al.: A phase II study of Catrix-S in solid tumors. J Biol Response Mod 4 (6): 585-9, 1985.
    5. AE 941--Neovastat. Drugs R D 1 (2): 135-6, 1999.
    6. Rosen J, Sherman WT, Prudden JF, et al.: Immunoregulatory effects of catrix. J Biol Response Mod 7 (5): 498-512, 1988.
    7. Hassan ZM, Feyzi R, Sheikhian A, et al.: Low molecular weight fraction of shark cartilage can modulate immune responses and abolish angiogenesis. Int Immunopharmacol 5 (6): 961-70, 2005.
    8. Feyzi R, Hassan ZM, Mostafaie A: Modulation of CD(4)(+) and CD(8)(+) tumor infiltrating lymphocytes by a fraction isolated from shark cartilage: shark cartilage modulates anti-tumor immunity. Int Immunopharmacol 3 (7): 921-6, 2003.
    9. Davis PF, He Y, Furneaux RH, et al.: Inhibition of angiogenesis by oral ingestion of powdered shark cartilage in a rat model. Microvasc Res 54 (2): 178-82, 1997.
    10. Morris GM, Coderre JA, Micca PL, et al.: Boron neutron capture therapy of the rat 9L gliosarcoma: evaluation of the effects of shark cartilage. Br J Radiol 73 (868): 429-34, 2000.
    11. Horsman MR, Alsner J, Overgaard J: The effect of shark cartilage extracts on the growth and metastatic spread of the SCCVII carcinoma. Acta Oncol 37 (5): 441-5, 1998.
    12. Dupont E, Savard PE, Jourdain C, et al.: Antiangiogenic properties of a novel shark cartilage extract: potential role in the treatment of psoriasis. J Cutan Med Surg 2 (3): 146-52, 1998.
    13. Murray JB, Allison K, Sudhalter J, et al.: Purification and partial amino acid sequence of a bovine cartilage-derived collagenase inhibitor. J Biol Chem 261 (9): 4154-9, 1986.
    14. Moses MA, Sudhalter J, Langer R: Identification of an inhibitor of neovascularization from cartilage. Science 248 (4961): 1408-10, 1990.
    15. Moses MA, Sudhalter J, Langer R: Isolation and characterization of an inhibitor of neovascularization from scapular chondrocytes. J Cell Biol 119 (2): 475-82, 1992.
    16. Moses MA: A cartilage-derived inhibitor of neovascularization and metalloproteinases. Clin Exp Rheumatol 11 (Suppl 8): S67-9, 1993 Mar-Apr.
    17. Takigawa M, Pan HO, Enomoto M, et al.: A clonal human chondrosarcoma cell line produces an anti-angiogenic antitumor factor. Anticancer Res 10 (2A): 311-5, 1990 Mar-Apr.
    18. Ohba Y, Goto Y, Kimura Y, et al.: Purification of an angiogenesis inhibitor from culture medium conditioned by a human chondrosarcoma-derived chondrocytic cell line, HCS-2/8. Biochim Biophys Acta 1245 (1): 1-8, 1995.
    19. Langer R, Brem H, Falterman K, et al.: Isolations of a cartilage factor that inhibits tumor neovascularization. Science 193 (4247): 70-2, 1976.
    20. Langer R, Conn H, Vacanti J, et al.: Control of tumor growth in animals by infusion of an angiogenesis inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77 (7): 4331-5, 1980.
    21. Takigawa M, Shirai E, Enomoto M, et al.: Cartilage-derived anti-tumor factor (CATF) inhibits the proliferation of endothelial cells in culture. Cell Biol Int Rep 9 (7): 619-25, 1985.
    22. Takigawa M, Shirai E, Enomoto M, et al.: A factor in conditioned medium of rabbit costal chondrocytes inhibits the proliferation of cultured endothelial cells and angiogenesis induced by B16 melanoma: its relation with cartilage-derived anti-tumor factor (CATF). Biochem Int 14 (2): 357-63, 1987.
    23. Hiraki Y, Inoue H, Iyama K, et al.: Identification of chondromodulin I as a novel endothelial cell growth inhibitor. Purification and its localization in the avascular zone of epiphyseal cartilage. J Biol Chem 272 (51): 32419-26, 1997.
    24. Lee A, Langer R: Shark cartilage contains inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis. Science 221 (4616): 1185-7, 1983.
    25. Sheu JR, Fu CC, Tsai ML, et al.: Effect of U-995, a potent shark cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitor, on anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities. Anticancer Res 18 (6A): 4435-41, 1998 Nov-Dec.
    26. Oikawa T, Ashino-Fuse H, Shimamura M, et al.: A novel angiogenic inhibitor derived from Japanese shark cartilage (I). Extraction and estimation of inhibitory activities toward tumor and embryonic angiogenesis. Cancer Lett 51 (3): 181-6, 1990.
    27. Dupont E, Falardeau P, Mousa SA, et al.: Antiangiogenic and antimetastatic properties of Neovastat (AE-941), an orally active extract derived from cartilage tissue. Clin Exp Metastasis 19 (2): 145-53, 2002.
    28. Béliveau R, Gingras D, Kruger EA, et al.: The antiangiogenic agent neovastat (AE-941) inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated biological effects. Clin Cancer Res 8 (4): 1242-50, 2002.
    29. Cho J, Kim Y: Sharks: a potential source of antiangiogenic factors and tumor treatments. Mar Biotechnol (NY) 4 (6): 521-5, 2002.
    30. Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, et al.: Molecular Biology of the Cell. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Garland Publishing, 1994.
    31. Gingras D, Renaud A, Mousseau N, et al.: Matrix proteinase inhibition by AE-941, a multifunctional antiangiogenic compound. Anticancer Res 21 (1A): 145-55, 2001 Jan-Feb.
    32. Boivin D, Gendron S, Beaulieu E, et al.: The antiangiogenic agent Neovastat (AE-941) induces endothelial cell apoptosis. Mol Cancer Ther 1 (10): 795-802, 2002.
    33. Suzuki F: Cartilage-derived growth factor and antitumor factor: past, present, and future studies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 259 (1): 1-7, 1999.
    34. Falardeau P, Champagne P, Poyet P, et al.: Neovastat, a naturally occurring multifunctional antiangiogenic drug, in phase III clinical trials. Semin Oncol 28 (6): 620-5, 2001.
    35. Liang JH, Wong KP: The characterization of angiogenesis inhibitor from shark cartilage. Adv Exp Med Biol 476: 209-23, 2000.
    36. Bukowski RM: AE-941, a multifunctional antiangiogenic compound: trials in renal cell carcinoma. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 12 (8): 1403-11, 2003.
    37. Gingras D, Batist G, Béliveau R: AE-941 (Neovastat): a novel multifunctional antiangiogenic compound. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 1 (3): 341-7, 2001.
    38. Gingras D, Boivin D, Deckers C, et al.: Neovastat--a novel antiangiogenic drug for cancer therapy. Anticancer Drugs 14 (2): 91-6, 2003.
    39. Ryoo JJ, Cole CE, Anderson KC: Novel therapies for multiple myeloma. Blood Rev 16 (3): 167-74, 2002.
    40. Gingras D, Nyalendo C, Di Tomasso G, et al.: Activation of tissue plasminogen activator gene transcription by Neovastat, a multifunctional antiangiogenic agent. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 320 (1): 205-12, 2004.
    41. Wojtowicz-Praga S: Clinical potential of matrix metalloprotease inhibitors. Drugs R D 1 (2): 117-29, 1999.
    42. Dredge K: AE-941 (AEterna). Curr Opin Investig Drugs 5 (6): 668-77, 2004.
    43. Moses MA, Wiederschain D, Wu I, et al.: Troponin I is present in human cartilage and inhibits angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96 (6): 2645-50, 1999.
    44. Kern BE, Balcom JH, Antoniu BA, et al.: Troponin I peptide (Glu94-Leu123), a cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitor: in vitro and in vivo effects on human endothelial cells and on pancreatic cancer. J Gastrointest Surg 7 (8): 961-8; discussion 969, 2003.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: May 28, 2015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
    1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5
    1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5
    Next Article:

    Today on WebMD

    Colorectal cancer cells
    New! I AM Not Cancer Facebook Group
    Lung cancer xray
    See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
    sauteed cherry tomatoes
    Fight cancer one plate at a time.
    Ovarian cancer illustration
    Real Cancer Perspectives
    Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
    what is your cancer risk
    colorectal cancer treatment advances
    breast cancer overview slideshow
    prostate cancer overview
    lung cancer overview slideshow
    ovarian cancer overview slideshow
    Actor Michael Douglas