Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Classification of Pediatric Myeloid Malignancies
French-American-British (FAB) Classification for Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia
The first comprehensive morphologic-histochemical classification system for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was developed by the FAB Cooperative Group.[1,2,3,4,5] This classification system categorizes AML into the following major subtypes primarily based on morphology and immunohistochemical detection of lineage markers:
- M0: acute myeloblastic leukemia without differentiation.[6,7]M0 AML, also referred to as minimally differentiated AML, does not express myeloperoxidase (MPO) at the light microscopy level, but may show characteristic granules by electron microscopy. M0 AML can be defined by expression of cluster determinant (CD) markers such as CD13, CD33, and CD117 (c-KIT) in the absence of lymphoid differentiation. To be categorized as M0, the leukemic blasts must not display specific morphologic or histochemical features of either AML or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). M0 AML appears to be associated with an inferior prognosis in non-Down syndrome patients.
- M1: acute myeloblastic leukemia with minimal differentiation but with the expression of MPO that is detected by immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry.
- M2: acute myeloblastic leukemia with differentiation.
- M3: acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) hypergranular type.Identifying this subtype is critical because the risk of fatal hemorrhagic complication prior to or during induction is high and the appropriate therapy is different than for other subtypes of AML. (Refer to the Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia section of this summary for more information on treatment options under clinical evaluation.)
- M3v: APL, microgranular variant. Cytoplasm of promyelocytes demonstrates a fine granularity, and nuclei are often folded. Same clinical, cytogenetic, and therapeutic implications as FAB M3.
- M4: acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML).
- M4Eo: AMML with eosinophilia (abnormal eosinophils with dysplastic basophilic granules).
- M5: acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL).
- M5a: AMoL without differentiation (monoblastic).
- M5b: AMoL with differentiation.
- M6: acute erythroid leukemia (AEL).
- M6a: erythroleukemia.
- M6b: pure erythroid leukemia.
- M7: acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL). Diagnosis of M7 can be difficult without the use of flow cytometry as the blasts can be morphologically confused with lymphoblasts. Characteristically, the blasts display cytoplasmic blebs. Marrow aspiration can be difficult due to myelofibrosis, and marrow biopsy with reticulin stain can be helpful.