Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors (GCTs)
Table 1. Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors by Age Group and Gendera
|0–4 years||5–9 years||10–14 years||15–19 years|
|a Rates are per million children from 1986 to 1995 for the nine SEER regions plus Los Angeles.|
GCTs develop from primordial germ cells, which migrate during embryogenesis from the yolk sac through the mesentery to the gonads.[8,9] Childhood extracranial GCTs can be divided into gonadal and extragonadal types. Most childhood extragonadal GCTs arise in midline sites (i.e., sacrococcygeal, mediastinal, and retroperitoneal); the midline location may represent aberrant embryonic migration of the primordial germ cells.
The histologic and genetic properties of these tumors are heterogeneous and vary by primary tumor site and the gender and age of the patient.[10,11] Histologically identical GCTs that arise in younger children have different biological characteristics from those that arise in adolescents and young adults.
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