Skip to content

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Stage Information for Childhood Extracranial GCTs

    As with other childhood solid tumors, stage directly impacts the outcome of patients with malignant germ cell tumors (GCTs).[1,2,3] The most commonly used staging system in the United States is described below.[4] Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has not been required in pediatric germ cell trials to stage males younger than 15 years. Data on adolescent males with testicular GCTs are limited. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is used for both staging and treatment in adult testicular GCT trials.[5] (Refer to the PDQ summary on Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information about the staging of adult testicular GCTs.)

    Nonseminoma Testicular GCT Staging From Children's Oncology Group

    Recommended Related to Cancer

    Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCER For more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions. Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The...

    Read the Get More Information From NCI article > >

    • Stage I: Limited to testis, complete resection by high inguinal orchiectomy or transscrotally with no tumor spillage. There must be no evidence of disease beyond the testis by radiologic scans or pathology. Tumor markers must normalize in appropriate half-life after resection.
    • Stage II: Transscrotal orchiectomy with spillage of tumor, microscopic disease in scrotum or high in spermatic cord (>0.5 cm), tumor markers fail to normalize or increase.
    • Stage III: Gross residual disease, retroperitoneal lymph node involvement (>2 cm in boys < age 10 years).
    • Stage IV: Distant metastases, including liver.

    Ovarian GCT Staging From Children's Oncology Group

    • Stage I: Localized disease, completely resected without microscopic disease in the resected margins or in regional lymph nodes.
    • Stage II: Microscopic residual disease, capsular invasion, or microscopic lymph node involvement.
    • Stage III: Gross residual disease, gross lymph node involvement (>2 cm), or cytologic evidence of tumor cells in ascites.
    • Stage IV: Disseminated disease involving lungs, liver, brain, or bone.

    Ovarian GCT Staging From FIGO

    Another staging system used frequently by gynecologic oncologists is the International Federation of Gynecologic Oncologists (FIGO) staging system, which is based on an adequate staging operation at the time of diagnosis.[6] (Refer to the PDQ summary on Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment for more information.) This system has also been used by some pediatric centers,[2] and is as follows:

    Stage I: Tumor limited to the ovaries

    • IA: One ovary, no ascites, intact capsule.
    • IB: Both ovaries, no ascites, intact capsule.
    • IC: Ruptured capsule, capsular involvement, positive peritoneal washings, or malignant ascites.
      1|2

      Today on WebMD

      Colorectal cancer cells
      A common one in both men and women.
      Lung cancer xray
      See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
       
      sauteed cherry tomatoes
      Fight cancer one plate at a time.
      Ovarian cancer illustration
      Do you know the symptoms?
       
      Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
      Blog
      what is your cancer risk
      HEALTH CHECK
       
      colorectal cancer treatment advances
      Video
      breast cancer overview slideshow
      SLIDESHOW
       
      prostate cancer overview
      SLIDESHOW
      lung cancer overview slideshow
      SLIDESHOW
       
      ovarian cancer overview slideshow
      SLIDESHOW
      Actor Michael Douglas
      Article