Most mediastinal GCTs in adolescents and young adults occur in males, and 22% to 50% have cytogenetic changes consistent with Klinefelter syndrome.[14,15] The age of presentation is younger in patients with Klinefelter syndrome.[14,15] As with sacrococcygeal tumors, primary chemotherapy is usually necessary to facilitate surgical resection of mediastinal GCTs, and the completeness of resection is a very important prognostic indicator.[6,16] Survival rates for the older adolescent and young adult population with mediastinal tumors are generally less than 60%.[4,17,18,19]; [Level of evidence: 3iiA]
Patients with a malignant mediastinal primary tumor and extracranial metastases are at the highest risk of developing brain metastases and are monitored closely for signs and symptoms of central nervous system involvement.[Level of evidence: 3iiB] (Refer to the PDQ summary on Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment for more information about the treatment of adult patients.)
Malignant Extragonadal Extracranial GCTs (Retroperitoneum)
Malignant GCTs located in the retroperitoneum or abdomen usually present in children before the age of 5 years; most tumors are of advanced stage and locally unresectable at diagnosis. A limited biopsy followed by platinum-based chemotherapy to shrink tumor bulk can lead to complete tumor resection in most patients. Despite the advanced-stage disease in most patients, the 6-year EFS using PEB was 83% in the Pediatric Oncology Group/Children's Cancer Group intergroup study.
Malignant Extragonadal Extracranial GCTs (Head and Neck Sites)
Although rare, benign and malignant GCTs can occur in the head and neck region, especially in infants. Often the airway is threatened. Surgery for nonmalignant tumors and surgery plus chemotherapy for malignant tumors can be curative.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDii]
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood extragonadal germ cell tumor. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
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- Cushing B, Giller R, Cullen JW, et al.: Randomized comparison of combination chemotherapy with etoposide, bleomycin, and either high-dose or standard-dose cisplatin in children and adolescents with high-risk malignant germ cell tumors: a pediatric intergroup study--Pediatric Oncology Group 9049 and Children's Cancer Group 8882. J Clin Oncol 22 (13): 2691-700, 2004.
- Baranzelli MC, Kramar A, Bouffet E, et al.: Prognostic factors in children with localized malignant nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol 17 (4): 1212, 1999.
- Marina N, London WB, Frazier AL, et al.: Prognostic factors in children with extragonadal malignant germ cell tumors: a pediatric intergroup study. J Clin Oncol 24 (16): 2544-8, 2006.
- Mann JR, Raafat F, Robinson K, et al.: The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity. J Clin Oncol 18 (22): 3809-18, 2000.
- Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Reinhard H, et al.: Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents: results of the German cooperative protocols MAKEI 83/86, 89, and 96. J Clin Oncol 18 (4): 832-9, 2000.
- Göbel U, Schneider DT, Calaminus G, et al.: Multimodal treatment of malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors: a prospective analysis of 66 patients of the German cooperative protocols MAKEI 83/86 and 89. J Clin Oncol 19 (7): 1943-50, 2001.
- Rescorla F, Billmire D, Stolar C, et al.: The effect of cisplatin dose and surgical resection in children with malignant germ cell tumors at the sacrococcygeal region: a pediatric intergroup trial (POG 9049/CCG 8882). J Pediatr Surg 36 (1): 12-7, 2001.
- Rogers PC, Olson TA, Cullen JW, et al.: Treatment of children and adolescents with stage II testicular and stages I and II ovarian malignant germ cell tumors: A Pediatric Intergroup Study--Pediatric Oncology Group 9048 and Children's Cancer Group 8891. J Clin Oncol 22 (17): 3563-9, 2004.
- Malogolowkin MH, Krailo M, Marina N, et al.: Pilot study of cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin, and escalating dose cyclophosphamide therapy for children with high risk germ cell tumors: a report of the children's oncology group (COG). Pediatr Blood Cancer 60 (10): 1602-5, 2013.
- Altman RP, Randolph JG, Lilly JR: Sacrococcygeal teratoma: American Academy of Pediatrics Surgical Section Survey-1973. J Pediatr Surg 9 (3): 389-98, 1974.
- Rescorla FJ, Sawin RS, Coran AG, et al.: Long-term outcome for infants and children with sacrococcygeal teratoma: a report from the Childrens Cancer Group. J Pediatr Surg 33 (2): 171-6, 1998.
- Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Bökkerink JP, et al.: Prognostic value of tumor size, metastases, extension into bone, and increased tumor marker in children with malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors: a prospective evaluation of 71 patients treated in the German cooperative protocols Maligne Keimzelltumoren (MAKEI) 83/86 and MAKEI 89. J Clin Oncol 21 (5): 781-6, 2003.
- Nichols CR, Heerema NA, Palmer C, et al.: Klinefelter's syndrome associated with mediastinal germ cell neoplasms. J Clin Oncol 5 (8): 1290-4, 1987.
- Schneider DT, Schuster AE, Fritsch MK, et al.: Genetic analysis of mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors in children and adolescents. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 34 (1): 115-25, 2002.
- Billmire D, Vinocur C, Rescorla F, et al.: Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors: an intergroup study. J Pediatr Surg 36 (1): 18-24, 2001.
- Vuky J, Bains M, Bacik J, et al.: Role of postchemotherapy adjunctive surgery in the management of patients with nonseminoma arising from the mediastinum. J Clin Oncol 19 (3): 682-8, 2001.
- Ganjoo KN, Rieger KM, Kesler KA, et al.: Results of modern therapy for patients with mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Cancer 88 (5): 1051-6, 2000.
- Bokemeyer C, Nichols CR, Droz JP, et al.: Extragonadal germ cell tumors of the mediastinum and retroperitoneum: results from an international analysis. J Clin Oncol 20 (7): 1864-73, 2002.
- Kang CH, Kim YT, Jheon SH, et al.: Surgical treatment of malignant mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor. Ann Thorac Surg 85 (2): 379-84, 2008.
- Göbel U, von Kries R, Teske C, et al.: Brain metastases during follow-up of children and adolescents with extracranial malignant germ cell tumors: risk adapted management decision tree analysis based on data of the MAHO/MAKEI-registry. Pediatr Blood Cancer 60 (2): 217-23, 2013.
- Billmire D, Vinocur C, Rescorla F, et al.: Malignant retroperitoneal and abdominal germ cell tumors: an intergroup study. J Pediatr Surg 38 (3): 315-8; discussion 315-8, 2003.
- Bernbeck B, Schneider DT, Bernbeck B, et al.: Germ cell tumors of the head and neck: report from the MAKEI Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (2): 223-6, 2009.