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Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

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Stage IV

In stage IV, the cancer has spread to the lung, liver, brain, or bone.

Another staging system which may be used for childhood ovarian germ cell tumors is as follows:

Stage I

In stage I, cancer is found in one or both of the ovaries and has not spread. Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IC.

  • Stage IA: Cancer is found in a single ovary.
  • Stage IB: Cancer is found in both ovaries.
  • Stage IC: Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and one of the following is true:
    • cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or
    • the capsule (outer covering) of the tumor has ruptured (broken open); or
    • cancer cells are found in fluid that has collected in the abdomen; or
    • cancer cells are found in washings of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen).

Stage II

In stage II, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the pelvis. Stage II is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC.

  • Stage IIA: Cancer has spread to the uterus and/or the fallopian tubes (the long slender tubes through which eggs pass from the ovaries to the uterus).
  • Stage IIB: Cancer has spread to other tissue within the pelvis such as the bladder, rectum, or vagina.
  • Stage IIC: Cancer has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes and/or other tissue within the pelvis and one of the following is true:
    • cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or
    • the capsule (outer covering) of the tumor has ruptured (broken open); or
    • cancer cells are found in fluid that has collected in the abdomen; or
    • cancer cells are found in washings of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen).

Stage III

cdr0000415526.jpg
Pea, peanut, walnut, and lime show tumor sizes.

In stage III, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread to other parts of the abdomen. Stage III is divided into stage IIIA, stage IIIB, and stage IIIC as follows:

  • Stage IIIA: The tumor is found only in the pelvis, but cancer cells that only can be seen with a microscope have spread to the surface of the peritoneum (tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen) or to the small bowel.
  • Stage IIIB: Cancer has spread to the peritoneum but is 2 centimeters or smaller in diameter.
  • Stage IIIC: Cancer has spread to the peritoneum and is larger than 2 centimeters in diameter and/or has spread to lymph nodes in the abdomen.
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