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    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

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    Stage III

    In stage III, one of the following is true:

    • The cancer is not completely removed by surgery. The remaining cancer can be seen without a microscope.
    • The cancer has spread to lymph nodes and the lymph nodes are 2 centimeters or larger.
    • The cancer is found in fluid in the abdomen.

    Stage IV

    In stage IV, the cancer has spread to the lung, liver, brain, or bone.

    Another staging system which may be used for childhood ovarian germ cell tumors is as follows:

    Stage I

    In stage I, cancer is found in one or both of the ovaries and has not spread. Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IC.

    • Stage IA: Cancer is found in a single ovary.
    • Stage IB: Cancer is found in both ovaries.
    • Stage IC: Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and one of the following is true:
      • cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or
      • the capsule (outer covering) of the tumor has ruptured (broken open); or
      • cancer cells are found in fluid that has collected in the abdomen; or
      • cancer cells are found in washings of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen).

    Stage II

    In stage II, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread into other areas of the pelvis. Stage II is divided into stage IIA, stage IIB, and stage IIC.

    • Stage IIA: Cancer has spread to the uterus and/or the fallopian tubes (the long slender tubes through which eggs pass from the ovaries to the uterus).
    • Stage IIB: Cancer has spread to other tissue within the pelvis such as the bladder, rectum, or vagina.
    • Stage IIC: Cancer has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes and/or other tissue within the pelvis and one of the following is true:
      • cancer is found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or
      • the capsule (outer covering) of the tumor has ruptured (broken open); or
      • cancer cells are found in fluid that has collected in the abdomen; or
      • cancer cells are found in washings of the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen).
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