A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your child's doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for your child.
Oropharyngeal cancer is uncommon and typically involves patients in the fifth through seventh decades of life; men are afflicted three to five times more often than women.[1,2,3]
Similar to other cancers of the head and neck, tobacco and alcohol abuse represent the most significant risk factors for the development of oropharyngeal cancer.[3,4] (Refer to the PDQ summaries on Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment and Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment for more information.) Other risk factors may include:
Treatment of mature and immature teratomas in the sacrum or coccyx is usually surgery followed by watchful waiting. Most teratomas can be removed completely. If the tumor is in the coccyx, the entire coccyx is removed. Chemotherapy may be given if the tumor comes back.
Treatment of mature and immature teratomas that are not in the sacrum or coccyx is usually surgery followed by watchful waiting. A second surgery may be done to remove any remaining cancer.
Sometimes a mature or immature teratoma also has malignant cells. The teratoma and malignant cells may need to be treated differently. The best treatment for the malignant cells is not known.
Regular follow-up exams with imaging tests and the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) tumor marker test will be done for at least 3 years.
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood teratoma. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Malignant Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors
Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumors
Treatment of malignant testicular germ cell tumors may include the following:
For boys younger than 15 years:
Surgery (radical inguinal orchiectomy) followed by watchful waiting for stage I tumors. Chemotherapy may be given if the tumor comes back.
Surgery (radical inguinal orchiectomy) followed by combination chemotherapy for stage II-IV tumors.
A clinical trial of fewer cycles of chemotherapy after surgery.
For boys 15 years and older:
Malignant testicular germ cell tumors in boys 15 years and older are treated differently than they are in young boys. Surgery may include removal of lymph nodes in the abdomen. Treatment depends on whether the tumor is a seminoma or a nonseminoma. (See the PDQ summary on Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information.)