Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Diagnosis and Staging
Staging and evaluation of disease status is undertaken at diagnosis and performed again early in the course of chemotherapy and at the end of chemotherapy.
The diagnostic and staging evaluation is a critical determinant in the selection of treatment. Initial evaluation of the child with Hodgkin lymphoma includes the following:[1,2]
- Detailed history of systemic symptoms.
- Physical examination.
- Laboratory studies.
- Anatomic imaging including chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
- Functional imaging including positron emission tomography (PET) scan.
The following three specific constitutional symptoms (B symptoms) correlate with prognosis and are considered in assignment of stage:
- Unexplained fever with temperatures above 38.0°C orally.
- Unexplained weight loss of 10% within the 6 months preceding diagnosis.
- Drenching night sweats.
Additional Hodgkin-associated constitutional symptoms without prognostic significance include the following:
- Alcohol-induced nodal pain.
- All node-bearing areas, including the Waldeyer ring, should be assessed by careful physical examination.
- Enlarged nodes should be measured to establish a baseline for evaluation of therapy response.
- Hematological and chemical blood parameters show nonspecific changes that may correlate with disease extent.
- Abnormalities of peripheral blood counts may include neutrophilic leukocytosis, lymphopenia, eosinophilia, and monocytosis.
- Acute-phase reactants such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, if abnormal at diagnosis, may be useful in follow-up evaluation.
Anatomic information from CT is complemented by PET functional imaging, which is sensitive in determining initial sites of involvement, particularly sites too small to be considered abnormal by CT criteria.
Definition of bulky disease
The posteroanterior chest radiograph remains important since the criterion for bulky mediastinal lymphadenopathy used in North American protocols is defined by the ratio of the diameter of the mediastinal lymph node mass to the maximal diameter of the rib cage on an upright chest radiograph; a ratio of 33% or higher is considered bulky. This definition is no longer used in some European protocols because it does not influence risk classification.
The criteria for bulky peripheral (nonmediastinal) lymphadenopathy have varied per cooperative group study protocols from aggregate nodal masses exceeding 4 to 6 cm. This disease characteristic has not been consistently used among all groups for risk stratification.