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    Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification


    Transitional liver cell tumor

    Transitional liver cell tumor is a rare neoplasm that is found in older children and adolescents, and has a putative intermediate position between hepatoblasts and more mature hepatocyte-like tumor cells. The tumor cells may vary in regions of the tumor between classical hepatoblastoma and obvious hepatocellular carcinoma. The tumors are usually unifocal and may have central necrosis at presentation. Response to chemotherapy is poor, much like hepatocellular carcinoma.[20]

    Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver is a distinct clinical and pathologic entity and accounts for 2% to 15% of pediatric hepatic malignancies.[21] Distinctive features are intracellular hyaline globules and marked anaplasia on a mesenchymal background.[22]

    Infantile Choriocarcinoma of the Liver

    These tumors are usually very friable and hemorrhagic and may present with bleeding into the tumor. The diagnosis can be made by imaging and findings of extremely high beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels.

    Cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts are both present. The former are closely packed nests of medium-sized cells with clear cytoplasm, distinct cell margins, and vesicular nuclei. The latter are very large multinucleated syncytia formed from the cytotrophoblasts.[23]


    1. Ortega JA, Douglass EC, Feusner JH, et al.: Randomized comparison of cisplatin/vincristine/fluorouracil and cisplatin/continuous infusion doxorubicin for treatment of pediatric hepatoblastoma: A report from the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 18 (14): 2665-75, 2000.
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    3. Haas JE, Muczynski KA, Krailo M, et al.: Histopathology and prognosis in childhood hepatoblastoma and hepatocarcinoma. Cancer 64 (5): 1082-95, 1989.
    4. Malogolowkin MH, Katzenstein HM, Meyers RL, et al.: Complete surgical resection is curative for children with hepatoblastoma with pure fetal histology: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 29 (24): 3301-6, 2011.
    5. Trobaugh-Lotrario AD, Tomlinson GE, Finegold MJ, et al.: Small cell undifferentiated variant of hepatoblastoma: adverse clinical and molecular features similar to rhabdoid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52 (3): 328-34, 2009.
    6. Meyers RL, Rowland JR, Krailo M, et al.: Predictive power of pretreatment prognostic factors in children with hepatoblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 53 (6): 1016-22, 2009.
    7. De Ioris M, Brugieres L, Zimmermann A, et al.: Hepatoblastoma with a low serum alpha-fetoprotein level at diagnosis: the SIOPEL group experience. Eur J Cancer 44 (4): 545-50, 2008.
    8. Rowland JM: Hepatoblastoma: assessment of criteria for histologic classification. Med Pediatr Oncol 39 (5): 478-83, 2002.
    9. Gunawan B, Schäfer KL, Sattler B, et al.: Undifferentiated small cell hepatoblastoma with a chromosomal translocation t(22;22)(q11;q13). Histopathology 40 (5): 485-7, 2002.
    10. Conran RM, Hitchcock CL, Waclawiw MA, et al.: Hepatoblastoma: the prognostic significance of histologic type. Pediatr Pathol 12 (2): 167-83, 1992 Mar-Apr.
    11. Haas JE, Feusner JH, Finegold MJ: Small cell undifferentiated histology in hepatoblastoma may be unfavorable. Cancer 92 (12): 3130-4, 2001.
    12. Czauderna P, Mackinlay G, Perilongo G, et al.: Hepatocellular carcinoma in children: results of the first prospective study of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology group. J Clin Oncol 20 (12): 2798-804, 2002.
    13. Honeyman JN, Simon EP, Robine N, et al.: Detection of a recurrent DNAJB1-PRKACA chimeric transcript in fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. Science 343 (6174): 1010-4, 2014.
    14. Lack EE, Neave C, Vawter GF: Hepatocellular carcinoma. Review of 32 cases in childhood and adolescence. Cancer 52 (8): 1510-5, 1983.
    15. Craig JR, Peters RL, Edmondson HA, et al.: Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver: a tumor of adolescents and young adults with distinctive clinico-pathologic features. Cancer 46 (2): 372-9, 1980.
    16. Farhi DC, Shikes RH, Murari PJ, et al.: Hepatocellular carcinoma in young people. Cancer 52 (8): 1516-25, 1983.
    17. Katzenstein HM, Krailo MD, Malogolowkin MH, et al.: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma in children and adolescents. Cancer 97 (8): 2006-12, 2003.
    18. Weeda VB, Murawski M, McCabe AJ, et al.: Fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a better survival than conventional hepatocellular carcinoma--results and treatment recommendations from the Childhood Liver Tumour Strategy Group (SIOPEL) experience. Eur J Cancer 49 (12): 2698-704, 2013.
    19. Cruz O, Laguna A, Vancells M, et al.: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma in an infant and literature review. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 30 (12): 968-71, 2008.
    20. Prokurat A, Kluge P, Kościesza A, et al.: Transitional liver cell tumors (TLCT) in older children and adolescents: a novel group of aggressive hepatic tumors expressing beta-catenin. Med Pediatr Oncol 39 (5): 510-8, 2002.
    21. Nicol K, Savell V, Moore J, et al.: Distinguishing undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver from biliary tract rhabdomyosarcoma: a Children's Oncology Group study. Pediatr Dev Pathol 10 (2): 89-97, 2007 Mar-Apr.
    22. Stocker JT: Hepatic tumors in children. Clin Liver Dis 5 (1): 259-81, viii-ix, 2001.
    23. Olson T, Schneider D, Perlman E: Germ cell tumors. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, eds.: Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2011, pp 1045-1067.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: 8/, 015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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