Skip to content

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

continued...

Hemangiopericytoma (infantile)

Hemangiopericytoma is a highly vascularized tumor of uncertain origin. Hemangiopericytoma in children younger than 1 year seems to have a better prognosis than in children older than 1 year.[162,163,164] Histologically, hemangiopericytomas are composed of packed round or fusiform cells that are arranged around a complex vasculature, forming many branch-like structures. Hyalinization is often present. Infantile hemangiopericytomas have similar histology but many are multilobular with vasculature outside the tumor mass.[165]

In a series of 17 children, the differences in metastatic potential and response to treatment were clearly demonstrated for adult and infantile hemangiopericytomas.[32] Eleven children were older than 1 year. Several of these patients had disease in the lymph nodes or lungs. Six patients with stage II and III disease progressed and died. Three patients with stage I disease survived, although one had recurrence in the lungs. Six patients had infantile hemangiopericytoma, most were greater than stage I (5 of 6). All six survived and three had good responses to vincristine, actinomycin, and cyclophosphamide.

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with nonmetastatic childhood soft tissue sarcoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References:

  1. Ferrari A, Casanova M, Collini P, et al.: Adult-type soft tissue sarcomas in pediatric-age patients: experience at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan. J Clin Oncol 23 (18): 4021-30, 2005.
  2. Stanelle EJ, Christison-Lagay ER, Sidebotham EL, et al.: Prognostic factors and survival in pediatric and adolescent liposarcoma. Sarcoma 2012: 870910, 2012.
  3. Alaggio R, Coffin CM, Weiss SW, et al.: Liposarcomas in young patients: a study of 82 cases occurring in patients younger than 22 years of age. Am J Surg Pathol 33 (5): 645-58, 2009.
  4. Ferrari A, Casanova M, Spreafico F, et al.: Childhood liposarcoma: a single-institutional twenty-year experience. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 16 (5): 415-21, 1999 Sep-Oct.
  5. Cecchetto G, Alaggio R, Dall'Igna P, et al.: Localized unresectable non-rhabdo soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities in pediatric age: results from the Italian studies. Cancer 104 (9): 2006-12, 2005.
  6. Huh WW, Yuen C, Munsell M, et al.: Liposarcoma in children and young adults: a multi-institutional experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (7): 1142-6, 2011.
  7. Dantonello TM, Int-Veen C, Leuschner I, et al.: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of soft tissues and bone in children, adolescents, and young adults: experiences of the CWS and COSS study groups. Cancer 112 (11): 2424-31, 2008.
  8. Dabska M, Huvos AG: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in the young. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 399 (1): 89-104, 1983.
  9. Wodowski K, Hill DA, Pappo AS, et al.: A chemosensitive pediatric extraosseous osteosarcoma: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 25 (1): 73-7, 2003.
  10. Sordillo PP, Hajdu SI, Magill GB, et al.: Extraosseous osteogenic sarcoma. A review of 48 patients. Cancer 51 (4): 727-34, 1983.
  11. Goldstein-Jackson SY, Gosheger G, Delling G, et al.: Extraskeletal osteosarcoma has a favourable prognosis when treated like conventional osteosarcoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 131 (8): 520-6, 2005.
  12. Lewis JJ, Boland PJ, Leung DH, et al.: The enigma of desmoid tumors. Ann Surg 229 (6): 866-72; discussion 872-3, 1999.
  13. Lazar AJ, Tuvin D, Hajibashi S, et al.: Specific mutations in the beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1) correlate with local recurrence in sporadic desmoid tumors. Am J Pathol 173 (5): 1518-27, 2008.
  14. Faulkner LB, Hajdu SI, Kher U, et al.: Pediatric desmoid tumor: retrospective analysis of 63 cases. J Clin Oncol 13 (11): 2813-8, 1995.
  15. Nieuwenhuis MH, Casparie M, Mathus-Vliegen LM, et al.: A nation-wide study comparing sporadic and familial adenomatous polyposis-related desmoid-type fibromatoses. Int J Cancer 129 (1): 256-61, 2011.
  16. Rossato M, Rigotti M, Grazia M, et al.: Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Acta Ophthalmol Scand 74 (4): 338-42, 1996.
  17. Baker RH, Heinemann MH, Miller HH, et al.: Hyperpigmented lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium in familial adenomatous polyposis. Am J Med Genet 31 (2): 427-35, 1988.
  18. Skapek SX, Ferguson WS, Granowetter L, et al.: Vinblastine and methotrexate for desmoid fibromatosis in children: results of a Pediatric Oncology Group Phase II Trial. J Clin Oncol 25 (5): 501-6, 2007.
  19. Gandhi MM, Nathan PC, Weitzman S, et al.: Successful treatment of life-threatening generalized infantile myofibromatosis using low-dose chemotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 25 (9): 750-4, 2003.
  20. Merchant NB, Lewis JJ, Woodruff JM, et al.: Extremity and trunk desmoid tumors: a multifactorial analysis of outcome. Cancer 86 (10): 2045-52, 1999.
  21. Heinrich MC, McArthur GA, Demetri GD, et al.: Clinical and molecular studies of the effect of imatinib on advanced aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumor). J Clin Oncol 24 (7): 1195-203, 2006.
  22. Gega M, Yanagi H, Yoshikawa R, et al.: Successful chemotherapeutic modality of doxorubicin plus dacarbazine for the treatment of desmoid tumors in association with familial adenomatous polyposis. J Clin Oncol 24 (1): 102-5, 2006.
  23. Constantinidou A, Jones RL, Scurr M, et al.: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, an effective, well-tolerated treatment for refractory aggressive fibromatosis. Eur J Cancer 45 (17): 2930-4, 2009.
  24. Hansmann A, Adolph C, Vogel T, et al.: High-dose tamoxifen and sulindac as first-line treatment for desmoid tumors. Cancer 100 (3): 612-20, 2004.
  25. Rutenberg MS, Indelicato DJ, Knapik JA, et al.: External-beam radiotherapy for pediatric and young adult desmoid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (3): 435-42, 2011.
  26. Merchant TE, Nguyen D, Walter AW, et al.: Long-term results with radiation therapy for pediatric desmoid tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 47 (5): 1267-71, 2000.
  27. Zelefsky MJ, Harrison LB, Shiu MH, et al.: Combined surgical resection and iridium 192 implantation for locally advanced and recurrent desmoid tumors. Cancer 67 (2): 380-4, 1991.
  28. Weiss AJ, Lackman RD: Low-dose chemotherapy of desmoid tumors. Cancer 64 (6): 1192-4, 1989.
  29. Klein WA, Miller HH, Anderson M, et al.: The use of indomethacin, sulindac, and tamoxifen for the treatment of desmoid tumors associated with familial polyposis. Cancer 60 (12): 2863-8, 1987.
  30. Okcu MF, Pappo AS, Hicks J, et al.: The nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, eds.: Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2011, pp 954-86.
  31. Loh ML, Ahn P, Perez-Atayde AR, et al.: Treatment of infantile fibrosarcoma with chemotherapy and surgery: results from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Children's Hospital, Boston. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 24 (9): 722-6, 2002.
  32. Fernandez-Pineda I, Parida L, Jenkins JJ, et al.: Childhood hemangiopericytoma: review of St Jude Children's Research Hospital. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 33 (5): 356-9, 2011.
  33. Akyüz C, Küpeli S, Varan A, et al.: Infantile fibrosarcoma: retrospective analysis of eleven patients. Tumori 97 (2): 166-9, 2011 Mar-Apr.
  34. Gallego S, Pericas N, Barber I, et al.: Infantile fibrosarcoma of the retroperitoneum: a site of unfavorable prognosis? Pediatr Hematol Oncol 28 (5): 451-3, 2011.
  35. Buckley PG, Mantripragada KK, Benetkiewicz M, et al.: A full-coverage, high-resolution human chromosome 22 genomic microarray for clinical and research applications. Hum Mol Genet 11 (25): 3221-9, 2002.
  36. Meguerditchian AN, Wang J, Lema B, et al.: Wide excision or Mohs micrographic surgery for the treatment of primary dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Am J Clin Oncol 33 (3): 300-3, 2010.
  37. Dagan R, Morris CG, Zlotecki RA, et al.: Radiotherapy in the treatment of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Am J Clin Oncol 28 (6): 537-9, 2005.
  38. Sun LM, Wang CJ, Huang CC, et al.: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: treatment results of 35 cases. Radiother Oncol 57 (2): 175-81, 2000.
  39. Price VE, Fletcher JA, Zielenska M, et al.: Imatinib mesylate: an attractive alternative in young children with large, surgically challenging dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Pediatr Blood Cancer 44 (5): 511-5, 2005.
  40. McArthur GA, Demetri GD, van Oosterom A, et al.: Molecular and clinical analysis of locally advanced dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans treated with imatinib: Imatinib Target Exploration Consortium Study B2225. J Clin Oncol 23 (4): 866-73, 2005.
  41. Rutkowski P, Van Glabbeke M, Rankin CJ, et al.: Imatinib mesylate in advanced dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: pooled analysis of two phase II clinical trials. J Clin Oncol 28 (10): 1772-9, 2010.
  42. Miller SJ, Alam M, Andersen JS, et al.: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 10 (3): 312-8, 2012.
  43. Kovach SJ, Fischer AC, Katzman PJ, et al.: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. J Surg Oncol 94 (5): 385-91, 2006.
  44. Brodlie M, Barwick SC, Wood KM, et al.: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours of the respiratory tract: paediatric case series with varying clinical presentations. J Laryngol Otol 125 (8): 865-8, 2011.
  45. Coffin CM, Hornick JL, Fletcher CD: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: comparison of clinicopathologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features including ALK expression in atypical and aggressive cases. Am J Surg Pathol 31 (4): 509-20, 2007.
  46. Butrynski JE, D'Adamo DR, Hornick JL, et al.: Crizotinib in ALK-rearranged inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. N Engl J Med 363 (18): 1727-33, 2010.
  47. Doski JJ, Priebe CJ Jr, Driessnack M, et al.: Corticosteroids in the management of unresected plasma cell granuloma (inflammatory pseudotumor) of the lung. J Pediatr Surg 26 (9): 1064-6, 1991.
  48. Diop B, Konate I, Ka S, et al.: Mesenteric myofibroblastic tumor: NSAID therapy after incomplete resection. J Visc Surg 148 (4): e311-4, 2011.
  49. Evans HL: Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 33 cases with long-term follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol 35 (10): 1450-62, 2011.
  50. O'Sullivan MJ, Sirgi KE, Dehner LP: Low-grade fibrosarcoma (hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes) with pulmonary metastases at presentation: case report and review of the literature. Int J Surg Pathol 10 (3): 211-6, 2002.
  51. Spunt SL, Hill DA, Motosue AM, et al.: Clinical features and outcome of initially unresected nonmetastatic pediatric nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 20 (15): 3225-35, 2002.
  52. Pollock BH, Jenson HB, Leach CT, et al.: Risk factors for pediatric human immunodeficiency virus-related malignancy. JAMA 289 (18): 2393-9, 2003.
  53. Kleinerman RA, Tucker MA, Abramson DH, et al.: Risk of soft tissue sarcomas by individual subtype in survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 99 (1): 24-31, 2007.
  54. Enzinger FM, Zhang RY: Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor presenting in children and young adults. An analysis of 65 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 12 (11): 818-26, 1988.
  55. Black J, Coffin CM, Dehner LP: Fibrohistiocytic tumors and related neoplasms in children and adolescents. Pediatr Dev Pathol 15 (1 Suppl): 181-210, 2012.
  56. Moosavi C, Jha P, Fanburg-Smith JC: An update on plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor and addition of 66 new cases from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, in honor of Franz M. Enzinger, MD. Ann Diagn Pathol 11 (5): 313-9, 2007.
  57. Billings SD, Folpe AL: Cutaneous and subcutaneous fibrohistiocytic tumors of intermediate malignancy: an update. Am J Dermatopathol 26 (2): 141-55, 2004.
  58. Remstein ED, Arndt CA, Nascimento AG: Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor: clinicopathologic analysis of 22 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 23 (6): 662-70, 1999.
  59. Salomao DR, Nascimento AG: Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor with systemic metastases: a case report. Am J Surg Pathol 21 (4): 469-76, 1997.
  60. Redlich GC, Montgomery KD, Allgood GA, et al.: Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor with a clonal cytogenetic anomaly. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 108 (2): 141-3, 1999.
  61. Luzar B, Calonje E: Cutaneous fibrohistiocytic tumours - an update. Histopathology 56 (1): 148-65, 2010.
  62. Randall RL, Albritton KH, Ferney BJ, et al.: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of soft tissue: an abandoned diagnosis. Am J Orthop 33 (12): 602-8, 2004.
  63. Alaggio R, Collini P, Randall RL, et al.: Undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas in children: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases and review of literature. Pediatr Dev Pathol 13 (3): 209-17, 2010 May-Jun.
  64. Daw NC, Billups CA, Pappo AS, et al.: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma and other fibrohistiocytic tumors in pediatric patients: the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital experience. Cancer 97 (11): 2839-47, 2003.
  65. Carli M, Ferrari A, Mattke A, et al.: Pediatric malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: the Italian and German soft tissue sarcoma cooperative group. J Clin Oncol 23 (33): 8422-30, 2005.
  66. Hagel C, Zils U, Peiper M, et al.: Histopathology and clinical outcome of NF1-associated vs. sporadic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. J Neurooncol 82 (2): 187-92, 2007.
  67. Zou C, Smith KD, Liu J, et al.: Clinical, pathological, and molecular variables predictive of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor outcome. Ann Surg 249 (6): 1014-22, 2009.
  68. Okada K, Hasegawa T, Tajino T, et al.: Clinical relevance of pathological grades of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: a multi-institution TMTS study of 56 cases in Northern Japan. Ann Surg Oncol 14 (2): 597-604, 2007.
  69. Ferrari A, Bisogno G, Macaluso A, et al.: Soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1. Cancer 109 (7): 1406-12, 2007.
  70. Ladanyi M, Lui MY, Antonescu CR, et al.: The der(17)t(X;17)(p11;q25) of human alveolar soft part sarcoma fuses the TFE3 transcription factor gene to ASPL, a novel gene at 17q25. Oncogene 20 (1): 48-57, 2001.
  71. Williams A, Bartle G, Sumathi VP, et al.: Detection of ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts and the TFE3 antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue in a series of 18 cases of alveolar soft part sarcoma: useful diagnostic tools in cases with unusual histological features. Virchows Arch 458 (3): 291-300, 2011.
  72. Kayton ML, Meyers P, Wexler LH, et al.: Clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of alveolar soft part sarcoma in children, adolescents, and young adults. J Pediatr Surg 41 (1): 187-93, 2006.
  73. Argani P, Antonescu CR, Illei PB, et al.: Primary renal neoplasms with the ASPL-TFE3 gene fusion of alveolar soft part sarcoma: a distinctive tumor entity previously included among renal cell carcinomas of children and adolescents. Am J Pathol 159 (1): 179-92, 2001.
  74. Fanburg-Smith JC, Miettinen M, Folpe AL, et al.: Lingual alveolar soft part sarcoma; 14 cases: novel clinical and morphological observations. Histopathology 45 (5): 526-37, 2004.
  75. Casanova M, Ferrari A, Bisogno G, et al.: Alveolar soft part sarcoma in children and adolescents: A report from the Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Italian Cooperative Group. Ann Oncol 11 (11): 1445-9, 2000.
  76. Pennacchioli E, Fiore M, Collini P, et al.: Alveolar soft part sarcoma: clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome in a series of 33 patients at a single institution. Ann Surg Oncol 17 (12): 3229-33, 2010.
  77. Ogose A, Yazawa Y, Ueda T, et al.: Alveolar soft part sarcoma in Japan: multi-institutional study of 57 patients from the Japanese Musculoskeletal Oncology Group. Oncology 65 (1): 7-13, 2003.
  78. Reichardt P, Lindner T, Pink D, et al.: Chemotherapy in alveolar soft part sarcomas. What do we know? Eur J Cancer 39 (11): 1511-6, 2003.
  79. Roozendaal KJ, de Valk B, ten Velden JJ, et al.: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma responding to interferon alpha-2b. Br J Cancer 89 (2): 243-5, 2003.
  80. Azizi AA, Haberler C, Czech T, et al.: Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF) expression and possible response to angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab in metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma. Lancet Oncol 7 (6): 521-3, 2006.
  81. Stacchiotti S, Tamborini E, Marrari A, et al.: Response to sunitinib malate in advanced alveolar soft part sarcoma. Clin Cancer Res 15 (3): 1096-104, 2009.
  82. Conde N, Cruz O, Albert A, et al.: Antiangiogenic treatment as a pre-operative management of alveolar soft-part sarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (6): 1071-3, 2011.
  83. Lieberman PH, Brennan MF, Kimmel M, et al.: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma. A clinico-pathologic study of half a century. Cancer 63 (1): 1-13, 1989.
  84. Speleman F, Delattre O, Peter M, et al.: Malignant melanoma of the soft parts (clear-cell sarcoma): confirmation of EWS and ATF-1 gene fusion caused by a t(12;22) translocation. Mod Pathol 10 (5): 496-9, 1997.
  85. Blazer DG 3rd, Lazar AJ, Xing Y, et al.: Clinical outcomes of molecularly confirmed clear cell sarcoma from a single institution and in comparison with data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. Cancer 115 (13): 2971-9, 2009.
  86. Coindre JM, Hostein I, Terrier P, et al.: Diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of paraffin embedded tissues: clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of 44 patients from the French sarcoma group. Cancer 107 (5): 1055-64, 2006.
  87. Ferrari A, Casanova M, Bisogno G, et al.: Clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses in pediatric patients: a report from the Italian and German Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cooperative Group. Cancer 94 (12): 3269-76, 2002.
  88. Leuschner I, Radig K, Harms D: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Semin Diagn Pathol 13 (3): 204-12, 1996.
  89. Kushner BH, LaQuaglia MP, Wollner N, et al.: Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor: prolonged progression-free survival with aggressive multimodality therapy. J Clin Oncol 14 (5): 1526-31, 1996.
  90. Saab R, Khoury JD, Krasin M, et al.: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor in childhood: the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49 (3): 274-9, 2007.
  91. Gerald WL, Ladanyi M, de Alava E, et al.: Clinical, pathologic, and molecular spectrum of tumors associated with t(11;22)(p13;q12): desmoplastic small round-cell tumor and its variants. J Clin Oncol 16 (9): 3028-36, 1998.
  92. Hayes-Jordan A, Green H, Ludwig J, et al.: Toxicity of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in pediatric patients with sarcomatosis/carcinomatosis: early experience and phase 1 results. Pediatr Blood Cancer 59 (2): 395-7, 2012.
  93. Lal DR, Su WT, Wolden SL, et al.: Results of multimodal treatment for desmoplastic small round cell tumors. J Pediatr Surg 40 (1): 251-5, 2005.
  94. Philippe-Chomette P, Kabbara N, Andre N, et al.: Desmoplastic small round cell tumors with EWS-WT1 fusion transcript in children and young adults. Pediatr Blood Cancer 58 (6): 891-7, 2012.
  95. Schwarz RE, Gerald WL, Kushner BH, et al.: Desmoplastic small round cell tumors: prognostic indicators and results of surgical management. Ann Surg Oncol 5 (5): 416-22, 1998 Jul-Aug.
  96. Goodman KA, Wolden SL, La Quaglia MP, et al.: Whole abdominopelvic radiotherapy for desmoplastic small round-cell tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 54 (1): 170-6, 2002.
  97. Chbani L, Guillou L, Terrier P, et al.: Epithelioid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 106 cases from the French sarcoma group. Am J Clin Pathol 131 (2): 222-7, 2009.
  98. Hornick JL, Dal Cin P, Fletcher CD: Loss of INI1 expression is characteristic of both conventional and proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 33 (4): 542-50, 2009.
  99. Casanova M, Ferrari A, Collini P, et al.: Epithelioid sarcoma in children and adolescents: a report from the Italian Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee. Cancer 106 (3): 708-17, 2006.
  100. Guzzetta AA, Montgomery EA, Lyu H, et al.: Epithelioid sarcoma: one institution's experience with a rare sarcoma. J Surg Res 177 (1): 116-22, 2012.
  101. Martignoni G, Pea M, Reghellin D, et al.: Molecular pathology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis and other perivascular epithelioid cell tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med 134 (1): 33-40, 2010.
  102. Bissler JJ, McCormack FX, Young LR, et al.: Sirolimus for angiomyolipoma in tuberous sclerosis complex or lymphangioleiomyomatosis. N Engl J Med 358 (2): 140-51, 2008.
  103. Davies DM, Johnson SR, Tattersfield AE, et al.: Sirolimus therapy in tuberous sclerosis or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis. N Engl J Med 358 (2): 200-3, 2008.
  104. Folpe A, Inwards C, eds.: Bone and Soft Tissue Pathology: A Volume in the Foundations in Diagnostic Pathology. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co, 2010.
  105. Armah HB, Parwani AV: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor. Arch Pathol Lab Med 133 (4): 648-54, 2009.
  106. Kodet R, Newton WA Jr, Sachs N, et al.: Rhabdoid tumors of soft tissues: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases enrolled on the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study. Hum Pathol 22 (7): 674-84, 1991.
  107. Biegel JA, Zhou JY, Rorke LB, et al.: Germ-line and acquired mutations of INI1 in atypical teratoid and rhabdoid tumors. Cancer Res 59 (1): 74-9, 1999.
  108. Eaton KW, Tooke LS, Wainwright LM, et al.: Spectrum of SMARCB1/INI1 mutations in familial and sporadic rhabdoid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56 (1): 7-15, 2011.
  109. Lee RS, Stewart C, Carter SL, et al.: A remarkably simple genome underlies highly malignant pediatric rhabdoid cancers. J Clin Invest 122 (8): 2983-8, 2012.
  110. Sajedi M, Wolff JE, Egeler RM, et al.: Congenital extrarenal non-central nervous system malignant rhabdoid tumor. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 24 (4): 316-20, 2002.
  111. Sultan I, Qaddoumi I, Rodríguez-Galindo C, et al.: Age, stage, and radiotherapy, but not primary tumor site, affects the outcome of patients with malignant rhabdoid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 54 (1): 35-40, 2010.
  112. Puri DR, Meyers PA, Kraus DH, et al.: Radiotherapy in the multimodal treatment of extrarenal extracranial malignant rhabdoid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50 (1): 167-9, 2008.
  113. Madigan CE, Armenian SH, Malogolowkin MH, et al.: Extracranial malignant rhabdoid tumors in childhood: the Childrens Hospital Los Angeles experience. Cancer 110 (9): 2061-6, 2007.
  114. Bourdeaut F, Fréneaux P, Thuille B, et al.: Extra-renal non-cerebral rhabdoid tumours. Pediatr Blood Cancer 51 (3): 363-8, 2008.
  115. Tsuneyoshi M, Enjoji M, Iwasaki H, et al.: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma--a clinicopathologic and electron microscopic study. Acta Pathol Jpn 31 (3): 439-47, 1981.
  116. Hachitanda Y, Tsuneyoshi M, Daimaru Y, et al.: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma in young children. Cancer 61 (12): 2521-6, 1988.
  117. Hisaoka M, Ishida T, Imamura T, et al.: TFG is a novel fusion partner of NOR1 in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 40 (4): 325-8, 2004.
  118. Enzinger FM, Shiraki M: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. An analysis of 34 cases. Hum Pathol 3 (3): 421-35, 1972.
  119. McGrory JE, Rock MG, Nascimento AG, et al.: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Clin Orthop Relat Res (382): 185-90, 2001.
  120. Drilon AD, Popat S, Bhuchar G, et al.: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: a retrospective review from 2 referral centers emphasizing long-term outcomes with surgery and chemotherapy. Cancer 113 (12): 3364-71, 2008.
  121. Sultan I, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Saab R, et al.: Comparing children and adults with synovial sarcoma in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, 1983 to 2005: an analysis of 1268 patients. Cancer 115 (15): 3537-47, 2009.
  122. van de Rijn M, Barr FG, Xiong QB, et al.: Poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma: an analysis of clinical, pathologic, and molecular genetic features. Am J Surg Pathol 23 (1): 106-12, 1999.
  123. van de Rijn M, Barr FG, Collins MH, et al.: Absence of SYT-SSX fusion products in soft tissue tumors other than synovial sarcoma. Am J Clin Pathol 112 (1): 43-9, 1999.
  124. Krsková L, Sumerauer D, Stejskalová E, et al.: A novel variant of SYT-SSX1 fusion gene in a case of spindle cell synovial sarcoma. Diagn Mol Pathol 16 (3): 179-83, 2007.
  125. Su L, Sampaio AV, Jones KB, et al.: Deconstruction of the SS18-SSX fusion oncoprotein complex: insights into disease etiology and therapeutics. Cancer Cell 21 (3): 333-47, 2012.
  126. Pappo AS, Fontanesi J, Luo X, et al.: Synovial sarcoma in children and adolescents: the St Jude Children's Research Hospital experience. J Clin Oncol 12 (11): 2360-6, 1994.
  127. Ferrari A, De Salvo GL, Oberlin O, et al.: Synovial sarcoma in children and adolescents: a critical reappraisal of staging investigations in relation to the rate of metastatic involvement at diagnosis. Eur J Cancer 48 (9): 1370-5, 2012.
  128. Brecht IB, Ferrari A, Int-Veen C, et al.: Grossly-resected synovial sarcoma treated by the German and Italian Pediatric Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cooperative Groups: discussion on the role of adjuvant therapies. Pediatr Blood Cancer 46 (1): 11-7, 2006.
  129. Trassard M, Le Doussal V, Hacène K, et al.: Prognostic factors in localized primary synovial sarcoma: a multicenter study of 128 adult patients. J Clin Oncol 19 (2): 525-34, 2001.
  130. Guillou L, Benhattar J, Bonichon F, et al.: Histologic grade, but not SYT-SSX fusion type, is an important prognostic factor in patients with synovial sarcoma: a multicenter, retrospective analysis. J Clin Oncol 22 (20): 4040-50, 2004.
  131. Ferrari A, Gronchi A, Casanova M, et al.: Synovial sarcoma: a retrospective analysis of 271 patients of all ages treated at a single institution. Cancer 101 (3): 627-34, 2004.
  132. McGrory JE, Pritchard DJ, Arndt CA, et al.: Nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas in children. The Mayo Clinic experience. Clin Orthop (374): 247-58, 2000.
  133. Van Glabbeke M, van Oosterom AT, Oosterhuis JW, et al.: Prognostic factors for the outcome of chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcoma: an analysis of 2,185 patients treated with anthracycline-containing first-line regimens--a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group Study. J Clin Oncol 17 (1): 150-7, 1999.
  134. Koscielniak E, Harms D, Henze G, et al.: Results of treatment for soft tissue sarcoma in childhood and adolescence: a final report of the German Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study CWS-86. J Clin Oncol 17 (12): 3706-19, 1999.
  135. Pappo AS, Devidas M, Jenkins J, et al.: Phase II trial of neoadjuvant vincristine, ifosfamide, and doxorubicin with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support in children and adolescents with advanced-stage nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcomas: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 23 (18): 4031-8, 2005.
  136. Okcu MF, Despa S, Choroszy M, et al.: Synovial sarcoma in children and adolescents: thirty three years of experience with multimodal therapy. Med Pediatr Oncol 37 (2): 90-6, 2001.
  137. Pappo AS, Rao BN, Jenkins JJ, et al.: Metastatic nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents: the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital experience. Med Pediatr Oncol 33 (2): 76-82, 1999.
  138. Brennan B, Stevens M, Kelsey A, et al.: Synovial sarcoma in childhood and adolescence: a retrospective series of 77 patients registered by the Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group between 1991 and 2006. Pediatr Blood Cancer 55 (1): 85-90, 2010.
  139. Okcu MF, Munsell M, Treuner J, et al.: Synovial sarcoma of childhood and adolescence: a multicenter, multivariate analysis of outcome. J Clin Oncol 21 (8): 1602-11, 2003.
  140. Ferrari A, Miceli R, Rey A, et al.: Non-metastatic unresected paediatric non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas: results of a pooled analysis from United States and European groups. Eur J Cancer 47 (5): 724-31, 2011.
  141. Raney RB: Synovial sarcoma in young people: background, prognostic factors, and therapeutic questions. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27 (4): 207-11, 2005.
  142. Orbach D, Mc Dowell H, Rey A, et al.: Sparing strategy does not compromise prognosis in pediatric localized synovial sarcoma: experience of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology, Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors (SIOP-MMT) Working Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (7): 1130-6, 2011.
  143. Ladenstein R, Treuner J, Koscielniak E, et al.: Synovial sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Report of the German CWS-81 study. Cancer 71 (11): 3647-55, 1993.
  144. Ferrari A, De Salvo GL, Dall'Igna P, et al.: Salvage rates and prognostic factors after relapse in children and adolescents with initially localised synovial sarcoma. Eur J Cancer 48 (18): 3448-55, 2012.
  145. Coffin CM, Dehner LP: Vascular tumors in children and adolescents: a clinicopathologic study of 228 tumors in 222 patients. Pathol Annu 28 Pt 1: 97-120, 1993.
  146. Lezama-del Valle P, Gerald WL, Tsai J, et al.: Malignant vascular tumors in young patients. Cancer 83 (8): 1634-9, 1998.
  147. Fata F, O'Reilly E, Ilson D, et al.: Paclitaxel in the treatment of patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp or face. Cancer 86 (10): 2034-7, 1999.
  148. Ferrari A, Casanova M, Bisogno G, et al.: Malignant vascular tumors in children and adolescents: a report from the Italian and German Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cooperative Group. Med Pediatr Oncol 39 (2): 109-14, 2002.
  149. Lahat G, Dhuka AR, Hallevi H, et al.: Angiosarcoma: clinical and molecular insights. Ann Surg 251 (6): 1098-106, 2010.
  150. Bien E, Kazanowska B, Dantonello T, et al.: Factors predicting survival in childhood malignant and intermediate vascular tumors : retrospective analysis of the Polish and German cooperative paediatric soft tissue sarcoma study groups and review of the literature. Ann Surg Oncol 17 (7): 1878-89, 2010.
  151. Deyrup AT, Miettinen M, North PE, et al.: Angiosarcomas arising in the viscera and soft tissue of children and young adults: a clinicopathologic study of 15 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 33 (2): 264-9, 2009.
  152. Park MS, Ravi V, Araujo DM: Inhibiting the VEGF-VEGFR pathway in angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor. Curr Opin Oncol 22 (4): 351-5, 2010.
  153. Daller JA, Bueno J, Gutierrez J, et al.: Hepatic hemangioendothelioma: clinical experience and management strategy. J Pediatr Surg 34 (1): 98-105; discussion 105-6, 1999.
  154. Ackermann O, Fabre M, Franchi S, et al.: Widening spectrum of liver angiosarcoma in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 53 (6): 615-9, 2011.
  155. Lyons LL, North PE, Mac-Moune Lai F, et al.: Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: a study of 33 cases emphasizing its pathologic, immunophenotypic, and biologic uniqueness from juvenile hemangioma. Am J Surg Pathol 28 (5): 559-68, 2004.
  156. Hu B, Lachman R, Phillips J, et al.: Kasabach-Merritt syndrome-associated kaposiform hemangioendothelioma successfully treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and actinomycin D. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 20 (6): 567-9, 1998 Nov-Dec.
  157. Deb G, Jenkner A, De Sio L, et al.: Spindle cell (Kaposiform) hemangioendothelioma with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome in an infant: successful treatment with alpha-2A interferon. Med Pediatr Oncol 28 (5): 358-61, 1997.
  158. Raabe EH, Keefer JR, Mitchell SE, et al.: Subtotal splenic embolization is a safe and effective treatment for isolated splenic vascular tumors associated with consumptive coagulopathy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 33 (5): 383-6, 2011.
  159. Makhlouf HR, Ishak KG, Goodman ZD: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver: a clinicopathologic study of 137 cases. Cancer 85 (3): 562-82, 1999.
  160. Pinet C, Magnan A, Garbe L, et al.: Aggressive form of pleural epithelioid haemangioendothelioma: complete response after chemotherapy. Eur Respir J 14 (1): 237-8, 1999.
  161. Hammill AM, Wentzel M, Gupta A, et al.: Sirolimus for the treatment of complicated vascular anomalies in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57 (6): 1018-24, 2011.
  162. Rodriguez-Galindo C, Ramsey K, Jenkins JJ, et al.: Hemangiopericytoma in children and infants. Cancer 88 (1): 198-204, 2000.
  163. Ferrari A, Casanova M, Bisogno G, et al.: Hemangiopericytoma in pediatric ages: a report from the Italian and German Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cooperative Group. Cancer 92 (10): 2692-8, 2001.
  164. Bien E, Stachowicz-Stencel T, Godzinski J, et al.: Retrospective multi-institutional study on hemangiopericytoma in Polish children. Pediatr Int 51 (1): 19-24, 2009.
  165. Weiss SW, Goldblum JR: Enzinger and Weiss's Soft Tissue Tumors. 4th ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby, 2001.
1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|10|11|12|13
1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|10|11|12|13

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Colorectal cancer cells
A common one in both men and women.
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
 
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Ovarian cancer illustration
Do you know the symptoms?
 
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
Blog
what is your cancer risk
HEALTH CHECK
 
colorectal cancer treatment advances
Video
breast cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
prostate cancer overview
SLIDESHOW
lung cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
 
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
SLIDESHOW
Actor Michael Douglas
Article