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Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

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There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:

  • Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
  • Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
  • Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.

When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.

One method used to stage childhood soft tissue sarcoma is based on how much cancer remains after surgery to remove the tumor and whether the cancer has spread:

Nonmetastatic childhood soft tissue sarcoma

In nonmetastatic childhood soft tissue sarcoma, the cancer has been partly or completely removed by surgery and has not spread to other parts of the body.

  • Group I: The tumor has been completely removed by surgery.
  • Group II: After surgery to remove the tumor, there are remaining cancer cells that can be seen only with a microscope .
  • Group III: After surgery , there is tumor remaining that can be seen with the eye.

Metastatic childhood soft tissue sarcoma

  • Group IV: The cancer has spread from where it started to other parts of the body (metastasis).

Another method used to stage childhood soft tissue sarcoma is based on the size of the tumor and whether cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

This staging system is based on the following:

  • The size of the tumor.
  • Whether the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes.
  • Whether the tumor has spread to other parts of the body.

cdr0000415526.jpg
Pea, peanut, walnut, and lime show tumor sizes.

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