Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
The following types of surgery may be used:
- Wide local excision: Removal of the tumor along with some normal tissue around it.
- Amputation: Surgery to remove all or part of the limb or appendage with cancer, such as the arm or hand.
- Lymphadenectomy: Removal of the lymph nodes with cancer.
A second surgery may be needed to:
- Remove any remaining cancer cells.
- Check the area around where the tumor was removed for cancer cells and then remove more tissue if needed.
If cancer is in the liver, a liver transplant may be done (the liver is removed and replaced with a healthy one from a donor).
Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given radiation therapy or chemotherapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. In general, radiation therapy is given when the tumor is not completely removed by surgery or is likely to grow and spread quickly.
There are two types of radiation therapy:
- External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Stereotactic radiation therapy is a type of external radiation therapy that aims radiation directly to a tumor, causing less damage to normal tissue around the tumor. The total dose of radiation is divided into several smaller doses given over several days. This procedure is also called stereotactic external-beam radiation therapy and stereotaxic radiation therapy.
- Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.
The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). Combination chemotherapy is the use of more than one anticancer drug. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.