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Communication in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Training in Communication Skills

Training Providers

Some believe that effective communication between doctor and patient is a core clinical skill that should be taught as rigorously as other medical sciences are taught.[1] Underlying this belief is a growing body of research and development of guidelines acknowledging that physicians need not be born with excellent communication skills but can learn as they practice various other aspects of medicine.[2]

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Overview

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Clinicians specializing in cancer acknowledge that insufficient training in communication and management skills is a major factor contributing to their stress, lack of job satisfaction, and emotional burnout.[3,4] Unfortunately, few oncologists or nurses have received adequate formal education in communication skills using methods likely to promote change, confidence, and competence.[3,4] On the other hand, good physician-patient communication is associated with the following:[3,4]

  • Adherence to drug regimens and diets.
  • Pain control.
  • Resolution of physical and functional symptoms.
  • Control of blood sugar and hypertension.
  • Good psychological functioning of patients.

Most (80%) patient-physician communication studies involve primary care physicians (i.e., family medicine physicians, general internists, or pediatricians). However, approximately 20% of studies in one review [5] used cancer providers, revealing a trend of inadequate training in patient communication for oncologists and other health professionals who deal with cancer patients, particularly with respect to giving bad news and handling strong, emotionally charged interview contexts.[5,6]

One group of authors believes there are four tasks in teaching effective practitioner-cancer patient communication:[7]

  1. Defining and distributing a comprehensive, evidenced-based curriculum.
  2. Recruiting faculty and/or local practitioners who embrace this curriculum and employ it in practice.
  3. Anchoring the curriculum in evidence-supported behaviors to promote effective interventions and focusing clinical controversies on the spectrum of naturally occurring communication styles that arise when working with patients.
  4. Employing longitudinal reinforcement.

Given a well-developed and broadly accepted curriculum, the next step in establishing a successful communication program is to create surroundings that maximize the opportunity to learn, practice, and internalize the curriculum. Longitudinal learning programs that utilize a cohesive faculty result in more meaningful incorporation of curricular elements into the practice styles of learners.[7]

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