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    Depression (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Assessment and Diagnosis

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    Risk Factors for Depression in People With Cancer

    • Cancer-related risk factors:
      • Depression at time of cancer diagnosis.[8,9]
      • Poorly controlled pain.[10]
      • Advanced stage of cancer.[10]
      • Increased physical impairment or discomfort.
      • Pancreatic cancer.[11]
      • Being unmarried and having head and neck cancer.[12]
      • Treatment with certain chemotherapeutic agents:
    • Noncancer-related risk factors:
      • History of depression:
        • Two or more episodes in a lifetime.
        • First episode early or late in life.
      • Lack of family support.[8]
      • Additional concurrent life stressors.[15]
      • Family history of depression or suicide.
      • Previous suicide attempts.
      • History of alcoholism or drug abuse.
      • Concurrent illnesses that produce depressive symptoms (e.g., stroke or myocardial infarction).
      • Past treatment for psychological problems.[16]

    Screening and Assessment for Depression

    Because of the common underrecognition and undertreatment of depression in people with cancer, screening tools can be used to prompt further assessment.[17] Among the physically ill, in general, instruments used to measure depression have not been shown to be more clinically useful than an interview and a thorough examination of mental status. Simply asking the patient whether he or she is depressed may improve the identification of depression.

    The following screening tools are commonly used:

    • A single-item interview. In persons with advanced cancer, a single-item interview question has been found to have acceptable psychometric properties and can be useful. One example is to ask "Are you depressed?"[18] Another example is to say, "Please grade your mood during the past week by assigning it a score from 0 to 100, with a score of 100 representing your usual relaxed mood." A score of 60 is considered a passing grade.[19]
    • The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.[20] The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale may have limited utility in certain patient populations such as early-stage breast cancer [21] and palliative care.[22,23]
    • The Psychological Distress Inventory.[24]
    • The Edinburgh Depression Scale.[25]
    • The Brief Symptom Inventory.[26]
    • The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale.[27]
    • The Distress Thermometer.[28]

    One study of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (n = 236) successfully utilized brief screening instruments such as the Distress Thermometer and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to identify women requiring further assessment to detect clinically significant levels of distress and psychiatric symptoms.[29]

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