Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit
Surveillance of Barrett esophagus involves the use of tests to identify preneoplastic changes or curable neoplasms in patients who are known to have Barrett esophagus. Certain factors are essential in the implementation of an effective surveillance protocol, including low risk of the surveillance method, correct histological diagnosis of dysplasia, proof that surgical resection for high-grade dysplasia will decrease the risk of cancer, and successful resection of cancer. The interval between endoscopic evaluations is typically determined by histologic findings, in accordance with published guidelines by gastroenterological committees. GERD should be treated prior to surveillance endoscopy to minimize confusion caused by inflammation in the interpretation of biopsy specimens. The technique of random, four-quadrant biopsies taken every 2 cm in the columnar-lined esophagus for standard histological evaluation has been recommended by some clinicians. For patients with no dysplasia, surveillance endoscopy at an interval of every 2 to 3 years has been recommended. For patients with low-grade dysplasia, surveillance every 6 months for the first year has been recommended, followed by annual endoscopy if the dysplasia has not progressed in severity. For patients with high-grade dysplasia, two options have been recommended: surgical resection or repeated endoscopic evaluation until the diagnosis of intramucosal carcinoma is made. Although widely adopted in clinical practice, these practices are based on uncontrolled series and the opinion of expert gastrointestinal endoscopists and pathologists.
Other techniques to potentially identify dysplastic epithelium that could then be sampled extensively include chromoendoscopy  and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.[29,32]
Evidence of Harm
Screening for esophageal cancer by the use of blind nonendoscopically directed balloon cytological sampling for squamous cell carcinoma is minimally inconvenient and uncomfortable. Endoscopic screening for esophageal adenocarcinoma is expensive, inconvenient, and usually requires sedation.
Complications such as perforation and bleeding can occur. The incidence of complications including perforation, respiratory arrest, and myocardial infarction, has been estimated to be 0 to 13 per 10,000 procedures with an associated mortality of 0 to 0.8 per 10,000 procedures.[33,34]
Individuals who are informed they have Barrett esophagus may consider themselves to be ill even though their risk of developing cancer is very low.
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