The Individual Herbs of Essiac and Flor Essence
Laboratory and animal experiments have shown that some of the chemicals in the herbs used to make Essiac and Flor Essence have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic, or anticancer activity.[7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15]
Among the herbs used in both mixtures, burdock root (Arctium lappa L.) contains several flavonoids and polyphenols that have shown antioxidant activity; Indian rhubarb root (Rheum palmatum L.) contains several anthraquinones, including emodin and aloe-emodin, which have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects; sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella L.) contains several types of anthraquinones, including emodin and aloe-emodin, as well as phytoestrogens, which may possess both procancer and anticancer activity; and slippery elm bark (Ulmus fulva Michx.) has been shown to contain antioxidants.[7,8,9,10,11,12,13]
Among the herbs found in Flor Essence alone, watercress (Nasturtium officinale R.Br.) contains phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), which has shown cytotoxic and antitumor activities; blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus L.) contains cnicin, which is a sesquiterpene lactone that has demonstrated cytotoxic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory effects, and arctiin and arctigenin, which are lignans that have shown anticancer activity; red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) contains a complex mixture of phytoestrogens including genistein, which has demonstrated antiangiogenic, estrogenic, and procancer and anticancer effects (depending on the dose); and extracts of kelp (Laminaria digitata [Hudson] Lamx.) have shown immunostimulatory and antitumor activities.[7,8,11,12,15]
Whether equivalent concentrations of relevant molecules can be achieved in the bloodstream of individuals who consume Essiac or Flor Essence in the amounts recommended by their manufacturers has not been determined. An uncharacterized Flor Essence commercial product was dosed at amounts less than those recommended by the manufacturers for humans, and there was an increase in tumor incidence in this model.
- Ottenweller J, Putt K, Blumenthal EJ, et al.: Inhibition of prostate cancer-cell proliferation by Essiac. J Altern Complement Med 10 (4): 687-91, 2004.
- Seely D, Kennedy DA, Myers SP, et al.: In vitro analysis of the herbal compound Essiac. Anticancer Res 27 (6B): 3875-82, 2007 Nov-Dec.
- Herbal treatments. In: US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment.: Unconventional Cancer Treatments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990. OTA-H-405, pp 71-5. Also available online. Last accessed February 3, 2014.
- Bennett LM, Montgomery JL, Steinberg SM, et al.: Flor-Essence herbal tonic does not inhibit mammary tumor development in Sprague Dawley rats. Breast Cancer Res Treat 88 (1): 87-93, 2004.
- Kulp KS, Montgomery JL, Nelson DO, et al.: Essiac and Flor-Essence herbal tonics stimulate the in vitro growth of human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat 98 (3): 249-59, 2006.
- Tai J, Cheung S, Wong S, et al.: In vitro comparison of Essiac and Flor-Essence on human tumor cell lines. Oncol Rep 11 (2): 471-6, 2004.
- Tamayo C, Richardson MA, Diamond S, et al.: The chemistry and biological activity of herbs used in Flor-Essence herbal tonic and Essiac. Phytother Res 14 (1): 1-14, 2000.
- Tamayo C: Essiac for cancer. Alternative Therapies in Women's Health 2 (3): 19-23, 2000.
- Kaegi E: Unconventional therapies for cancer: 1. Essiac. The Task Force on Alternative Therapies of the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiative. CMAJ 158 (7): 897-902, 1998.
- Essiac. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Breast Cancer Research Alliance, 1996.
- Franke AA, Cooney RV, Custer LJ, et al.: Inhibition of neoplastic transformation and bioavailability of dietary flavonoid agents. In: Manthey JA, Buslig BS, eds.: Flavonoids in the Living System. New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1998. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 439, pp 237-48.
- Waladkhani AR, Clemens MR: Effect of dietary phytochemicals on cancer development (review) Int J Mol Med 1 (4): 747-53, 1998.
- de Witte P: Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of anthranoids. Pharmacology 47 (Suppl 1): 86-97, 1993.
- Campbell MJ, Hamilton B, Shoemaker M, et al.: Antiproliferative activity of Chinese medicinal herbs on breast cancer cells in vitro. Anticancer Res 22 (6C): 3843-52, 2002 Nov-Dec.
- Boué SM, Wiese TE, Nehls S, et al.: Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens. J Agric Food Chem 51 (8): 2193-9, 2003.