Milk thistle is a plant whose fruit and seeds are used to make remedies for liver and bile duct ailments (see Question 1).
The active ingredient found in milk thistle is silymarin, an antioxidant that, among other things, protects against cell damage and stimulates repair of liver tissue (see Question 1 and Question 5).
Milk thistle has been studied in laboratory cell lines and animal tumors for its potential to make chemotherapy less toxic and more effective, and to slow the growth of...
Revised text to state that between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality decreased by more than 50%. Also added that for Ewing sarcoma, the 5-year survival rate has increased over the same time from 59% to 78% for children younger than 15 years and from 20% to 60% for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years (added Smith et al. as reference 3).
Added De Ioris et al. as reference 23.
Added text to state that in one institutional study, FDG-PET had a very high correlation with bone scan; the investigators suggested that it could replace bone scan for the initial extent of disease evaluation. Also added text to state that this finding was confirmed in a single-institution retrospective review (cited Newman et al. as reference 3 and Ulaner et al. as reference 4).
Treatment Option Overview
Added Drabko et al. as reference 34.
Ewing Sarcoma: Recurrent Tumors
Revised text to state that combinations of chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide and topotecan or irinotecan and temozolomide with or without vincristine, are active in recurrent Ewing sarcoma and can be considered for these patients (cited Raciborska et al. as reference 11).
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
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